“It is not that we can regain independence right away with our street demonstrations, shouting ‘Manse!’ (“Long live Korea!”), but I will take part in the demonstration to awaken the spirit of independence in the hearts of our brethren.” -Part of a speech given by Son Byeong-hui, a Korean independence activist, to leaders of the Cheondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way) right before the March 1 Declaration of Independence on March 1, 1919.

Nationwide Street Demonstrations Held on March 1, 1919

When World War I ended in 1918, the Paris Peace Conference was held to discuss what the winners of the war would get and how the losers of the war should be treated. Korean independence activists hurriedly dispatched a delegation to the conference in the name of the Sinhan Cheongnyeondang (New Korea Youth Association). On January 21, 1919, three days after the start of the conference, Emperor Gojong suddenly passed away. Judging that it was an opportune moment to inform the world of the Korean people’s determination to regain national independence, Korean religious people and students started making preparations for the independence movement. And just at the right time, Korean students issued the February 8th Independence Declaration in Tokyo, Japan.
Seoul was the cradle of the March 1st Independence Movement. Members of the Cheondogyo and Christian churches elected leaders of the movement in many parts of the country. Students also made preparations for the demonstration for the independence of Korea. Early on the morning of March 1, 1919, they distributed the text of the Declaration of Independence in downtown Seoul. This was the beginning of the movement. Around noon, many students left their schools and gathered in Tapgol Park in Jongno. The leaders of the movement gathered at the Taehwagwan Restaurant in Jongno. At 2:00 PM, the leaders held an independence declaration ceremony and reported it voluntarily to the Japanese police, whereupon they were arrested by the Japanese military police and the police. Thousands of people, including the students who had gathered in Tapgol Park, read aloud the Declaration of Independence, and started marching through the streets, shouting, “Manse!”
Similar street demonstrations were held on that day in six other cities in (present-day) North Korea including Pyeongyang, Jinnampo, Anju (Pyeongannam-do), Seoncheon, Uiju (Pyeonganbuk-do), and Wonsan (Hamgyeongnam-do). In Pyeongyang, people from Presbyterian and Methodist churches and followers of Cheondogyo held an independence declaration ceremony at their individual churches and poured out into the streets at around 1:00 PM to join in the demonstration. Students from Christian mission schools also joined the demonstration. In Jinnampo, the congregations of Methodist churches and teachers of Methodist mission schools joined in the street demonstration at 2:00 PM, shouting “Manse!” Followers of Cheondogyo and workers also took part. In Anju, the street demonstration began at 5:00 PM led by young Christian leaders. In Seoncheon, teachers and students of Presbyterian mission schools held an independence declaration ceremony at noon and poured out into the streets, shouting “Manse!” Followers of Cheondogyo also joined in the demonstration. In Uiju, Christians and students of Christian mission schools led the street demonstration, starting at 2:30 PM, joined by Cheondogyo followers. In Wonsan, congregations of Presbyterian and Methodist churches started the street demonstration at 2:00 PM, joined by students of Christian mission schools. The street demonstrations held in seven cities including Seoul on March 1, 1919 showed how strongly Koreans were determined to regain national independence and how they were united as one in that determination. They were all cities with a railroad station. They had all received the text of the Declaration of Independence of 1919, drawn up by Choe Nam-seon, on that day or the preceding day via the railroad, and they read it aloud at the ceremony.
민중의 역사, 3‧1운동 사진 민중의 역사, 3‧1운동 사진2 Street demonstration in front of Daehanmun Gate of Deoksugung Palace @Source: The Independence Hall of Korea

Nationwide Street Demonstrations Day After Day

The abovementioned street demonstrations that took place on March 1, 1919 started spreading to nearby areas. Some 276 street demonstrations were held up to March 14 all around the country, of which 197 were in the northern regions of the country. In the ensuing days, the mid-southern region, including Gyeonggi-do, led the other areas in terms of the number of street demonstrations. Toward the end of March, the demonstrations were held in the northern areas again. The demonstrations reached a peak between the end of March and early April, with around 50 or 60 street demonstrations taking place.
The demonstrations in urban areas differed in certain respects from those of rural areas. In fact, the March 1st Independence Movement began in urban areas and then spread to rural areas. In urban areas, religious people and students led the demonstrations. Students established the plans for the demonstrations and refused to attend their classes. Workers engaged in strikes. Store owners closed their stores. In rural areas, however, the demonstrations were held on market days, when many people usually gathered together. People read the text of the Declaration of Independence aloud on busy streets and then marched, shouting “Manse!” Rural people used torches and signal fires just as the participants in the peasant struggles had done. Likewise, the March 1st Independence Movement was participated in by people from all walks of life, including Confucian scholars who once lorded it over uneducated people, local administrators who had previously curried favor with the Japanese colonists, and young people. All of them volunteered. That was the formidable power of the March 1st Independence Movement.
  • Seoul
    • March First Independence Movement
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      March First Independence Movement (in 1919, against the Japanese colonial rule)

      At the end of 1918 before the Paris Peace Conference to be held for the post-war readjustment after the First World War, Korean intellectuals were preparing an independence movement while closely monitoring the global situation. In Shanghai, Lyuh Woon-hyung dispatched Kim Kyu-sik to the Paris Peace Conference as the representative of the New Korea Youth Party and sent a secret envoy to Korea to report the news and encourage the establishment of an independence movement. Emperor Gojong died an untimely death on January 21, 1919, three days after the Paris Peace Conference that opened on January 18. The Korean students in Tokyo who were preparing the "February 8th Declaration of Independence" secretly dispatched Song Gye-baek to Korea to report the news of the preparation of the Declaration of Independence. Judging that the domestic and overseas situation gave a good opportunity to announce the Korean people's desire for national independence throughout the world, religious circles and students began to plot an independence movement in earnest. As a result, the Declaration of Independence and the independence demonstration on March 1, 1919 were prepared based on the value of solidarity expressed as "unification" in Chondoism.
      During the 1910s, there was no freedom of political association for Korean intellectuals. They could only become religious leaders and teachers. The very religious leaders and teachers worked as the principal agents in the plotting of the independence movement. Initially, the Chondoism leaders suggested an independence movement based on solidarity. The masterminds were Son Byong-hi, founder of Chondoism, his associates Kwon Dong-jin and Oh Se-chang, and Choi Rin who became a believer of Chondoism and served as the principal of Boseong Middle School immediately after the collapse of the Korean Empire in 1910. They took action in earnest from late January 1919. They planned three specific methods for the independence movement. The first method was to declare the independence of Korea in the name of the representatives of the people of Korea and distribute the Declaration of Independence throughout the nation to hold people’s demonstrations to show the desire of the people of Korea for national independence. The second method was to submit the opinion about the independence of Korea to the Japanese government, the House of Peers, and the House of Representatives, the Japanese Government-General of Korea, and the members of the Paris Peace Conference. The third method was to send a petition to President Woodrow Wilson of the United States to make an effort for the national independence of Korea. Choi Rin assumed the role of liaison officer for solidarity. From the beginning, the masterminds kept in their minds popularization, non-violence, and unification as the principles of the independence movement.
      In early February, Choi Rin banded together with school teachers first. He met Song Jin-woo and Hyun Sang-yoon, principal and teacher of Joongang School, respectively, to notify them of the plan for the independence movement and get their consent. Next, he met with renowned people who served as high-ranking officials in the Joseon Dynasty and the Korean Empire such as Park Yeong-hyo, Yun Chi-ho, Yun Yong-gu, and Han Gyu-seol, which ended in failure. As expected, the most important force in the solidarity was the Christian world. Choi Rin tried to contact Lee Seung-hoon, an elder of the Presbyterian Church, through Choe Nam-seon who agreed to write the draft of the Declaration of Independence. Lee Seung-hoon soon arrived in Seoul on February 11, met with Song Jin-woo, and agreed to join after hearing about the plan of the Chondoism leaders for the independence movement.
      Unlike Chondoism, which was a single centralized organization, the Christian world was divided into two groups: the Presbyterian Church and the Methodist Church. Lee Seung-hoon sought for solidarity between the Presbyterian Church and the Methodist Church. First, he met the leaders of the Presbyterian Church including Yang Jeon-baek, Yu Yeo-dae, Kim Byeong-jo, and Lee Myeong-ryong in Seoncheon, Pyeonganbuk-do Province and got their consent. In Pyeongyang, Pyeongannam-do Province, he met Rev. Gil Seon-ju of the Presbyterian Church and Rev. Shin Hong-sik of the Methodist Church and confirmed their intention to join. Lee Seung-hoon came back to Seoul on Feb. 17. Dealing with only Song Jin-woo and Choe Nam-seon without Choi Rin, Lee Seung-hoon had doubts about the preparation of the independence movement by Chondoism. At that time, he heard from Park Hee-do, assistant administrator of the Central YMCA, that the Christian world in Seoul where the Methodist Church wields strong power is discussing an independence movement. Lee Seung-hoon met with the leaders of the Methodist Church such as Oh Hwa-yeong, Jeong Chun-su, Shin Hong-sik, and Oh Gi-seon on Feb. 20. In the meeting, they decided to submit a petition for national independence to the Japanese government as an independence movement of only the Christian world based on the solidarity between the Presbyterian Church and the Methodist Church. Lee Seung-hoon met with the leaders of the Presbyterian Church such as Ham Tae-yeong, Lee Gap-seong, Ahn Se-hwan, Oh Sang-geun, and Hyun Soon and got their consent to the solidarity.
      Finally, Lee Seung-hoon and Choi Rin met together on Feb. 21 through the good offices of Choe Nam-seon. Choi Rin persuaded Lee Seung-hoon to stop the unilateral preparation of the independence movement by the Christian world and band together with Chondoism. Lee Seung-hoon asked Choi Rin to provide 5,000 won (now worth about 250 million won) as fund for the independence movement, and Chondoism leaders offered the money immediately. That night, Lee Seung-hoon met with the leaders of the Presbyterian Church such as Ham Tae-yeong, Ahn Se-hwan, Kim Se-hwan, Kim Pil-su, and Oh Sang-geun together with the leaders of the Methodist Church such as Park Hee-do, Oh Hwa-yeong, Shin Hongsik, and Oh Gi-seon. In the meeting that went on all night, the leaders agreed on the solidarity with Chondoism after reviewing the method of the independence movement of Chondoism and designated Lee Seung-hoon and Ham Tae-yeong as negotiating agents. They also agreed to continue the plan for the petition for national independence. The next day, in a meeting with Lee Seung-hoon and Ham Tae-yeong, Choi Rin rejected the method of petitioning for national independence and asserted that solidarity would be unnecessary if they would not be joining the declaration of independence. Lee Seung-hoon and Ham Tae-yeong discussed the matter again with the Christian leaders and made a resolution to band together with Chondoism.
      The solidarity between Chondoism and Christianity was confirmed on Feb. 24. The two sides made specific agreements. First, the declaration of independence was to be announced on March 1, 2 pm at Tapgol Park in Seoul where hundreds of thousands of people would gather to attend the funeral of Emperor Gojong. Second, the declaration of independence would be printed in large quantities for distribution in Seoul and in local areas as well. Local areas would be asked to follow the time of declaration of independence and method of distribution of the declaration of independence of Seoul. Third, the declaration of independence would be printed by Chondoism and distributed jointly by Chondoism and Christianity. In addition, the submission of opinion about the independence of Korea to the Japanese government, the House of Peers, and the House of Representatives was to be done by Chondoism, and the submission of the opinion to the President of the US and the members of the Paris Peace Conference was to be done by Christianity. Fourth, the national representatives were to be selected from the leaders of Chondoism and Christianity, and the solidarity would include the Buddhist orders demanding to participate in the independence movement.
      That night, Choi Rin met with Han Yong-un, a monk of Sinheungsa Temple, and asked him to join the solidarity. Han Yong-un signified their intention of participating in the independence movement to Choi Rin, who accepted the offer immediately. Choi Rin got the consent of Baek Yong-seong, a monk of Haeinsa Temple, through the good offices of Han Yong-un. Meanwhile, Choi Rin apparently attempted to band together with Confucian scholars through Han Yong-un. Though Gwak Jong-seok and Kim Chang-suk showed favorable response, there was no distinct center or organization for Confucian scholars. The attempt did not succeed due to the risk of discovery of the plan by individual contacts with Confucian scholars and the insufficient time.
      About the time when the solidarity among Chondoism, Christianity, and Buddhism was realized, student leaders decided to band together with the independence movement of the religious world. Originally, the students had their own plans for an independence movement to be organized with the representatives of colleges taking the lead. They banded together from early 1919. On Jan. 6, Kim Won-byeok of Yonhee College, Kang Gi-deok of Boseong Law & Commercial School, and Han Wi-geon of Gyeongseong Medical College gathered together to discuss the matter of the independence movement. Park Hee-do, assistant administrator of the Central YMCA, and Joo Ik, a graduate of Boseong Law & Commercial School, also attended the meeting. Note, however, that the preparation in earnest began late January similar to the religious world. In the preparation stage, Joo Ik wrote the declaration of independence whose point was the "declaration of the independence of Korea based on the principle of national self-determination to enjoy the fruit of the unity of colored races for the peace of the Orient through an alliance with Japan."
      After the preparation that lasted for more than a month, the representative of each college was elected on Feb. 20, and deputy leaders were nominated to lead the demonstration in case the representatives were arrested. Then, on Feb. 23, Park Hee-do brought word that the religious circles were about to hold an independence demonstration in unity. On Feb. 25, they heard the news that the date of the independence demonstration was scheduled for March 1. The students leaders held meetings for two consecutive days and decided that college students and middle and high school students as well would be mobilized to participate in the ceremony for the declaration of independence at Tapgol Park on March 1, and then a separate demonstration of students alone would be held on March 5. The students made the decision by themselves to participate in the ceremony for the declaration of independence to band together with the independence movement of the religious circles.
      On Feb. 27 and Feb. 28, specific solidarity activities were held in relation to the selection of national leaders and printing and distribution of the declaration of independence. On Feb. 27, the religious circles selected the final national representatives. The top 15 officials of the central order of Chondoism participated as national representatives. From the Christian world, 6 people from the Presbyterian Church and 10 people from the Methodist Church became national representatives. From the Buddhist orders, the 2 persons mentioned earlier were included among the national representatives. That day, the national representatives affixed their seals on the Declaration of Independence by sending their seals to Choi Rin. The Declaration of Independence was printed at Boseongsa Printing House run by Chondoism. Factory supervisor Kim Hong-gyu printed 21,000 copies of the Declaration of Independence between 5 pm and 11 pm that day.
      The distribution of the Declaration of Independence was done on Feb. 28 through the joint efforts of the religious circles and students. Lee Jong-il, president of Chondoism Monthly, took responsibility for the distribution of the Declaration of Independence throughout the nation. First, the Chondoism organization distributed the Declaration of Independence mainly in the northern regions. Ahn Sang-deok headed for Gangwon-do Province and Hamgyeong–do Province carrying 2,000 copies of the Declaration of Independence. Kim Sang-yeol left for Pyeongan-do Province with 3,000 copies. Lee Gyeong-seop went to the Hwanghae-do region bringing 1,000 copies. Meanwhile, In Jong-ik received 2,000 copies and left for the southern regions of Jeollabuk-do Province and Chungcheongbuk-do Province. Among the Christian leaders, Lee Gap-seong and Ham Tae-yeong led the distribution of the Declaration of Independence. Lee Gap-seong sent 1,500 copies of the Declaration of Independence to Kang Gi-deok for distribution in Seoul by the students. On the night of Feb. 28, more than 10 student leaders of colleges and middle and high schools shared the Declaration of Independence at Seungdong Church. Lee Gap-seong also gave 300~400 copies to Lee Yong-sang for distribution in Gyeongsang-do Province. Kim Byeong-su received about 100 copies for distribution in the Gunsan area. Ham Tae-yeong sent about 600 copies to Pyeongyang and gave the remaining 600 copies to Kim Chang-jun who was selected as a national representative. Kim Chang-jun sent 300 copies to Seoncheon through Lee Gye-chang and 100 copies each to Gaeseong and Wonsan through Oh Hwa-yeong. Han Yong-un of the Buddhism circle received 3,000 copies, which were distributed in Seoul through 9 students including Oh Taek-eon and Jeong Byeong-heon who were attending Joongang Hangnim School. The distribution of the Declaration of Independence in Seoul on March 1 was left solely to the students.
      That night, 23 leaders of Chondoism, Christianity, and Buddhism who were national representatives gathered together for the first time at the house of Son Byong-hi. At the meeting, Park Hee-do and Lee Gap-seong -- who prepared the independence movement of students together -- brought word that students would come to Tapgol Park the next day. The national leaders expressed anxiety over the solidarity with students, worrying about a possible disturbance. Finally, the place of the ceremony for the declaration of independence by the national representatives was changed from Tapgol Park to Taehwagwan in Insa-dong.
      This was how the solidarity in the religious circles was done mainly through the selection of national representatives. The students who highly evaluated the solidarity of the religious circles wanted to band together with the declaration of independence prepared by the religious circles. The national representatives felt uncomfortable with the solidarity with the students. As seen in the process of distribution of the Declaration of Independence in Seoul, however, the solidarity between the religious circles and the students with the mediation of Christian leaders played a decisive role in the popularization of the ceremony for the declaration of independence and the independence demonstration in Seoul on March 1.
      At daybreak on March 1, the copies of the Declaration of Independence distributed by students found their way to downtown. In the morning, a ceremony was held at Deoksugung Palace for the reading of a funeral message for Emperor Gojong, which was one of the funeral procedures. Numerous people from all over the nation gathered in downtown Seoul to witness the funeral of Emperor Gojong. From around noon, students went out of the school gate and marched toward Tapgol Park distributing the Declaration of Independence. A total of 29 out of the 33 national representatives gathered at Taehwagwan.
      At 2 pm, the national representatives had a ceremony at Taehwagwan for the declaration of independence. Lee Jong-il handed out about 100 copies of the Declaration of Independence, but it was not read aloud. Han Yong-un made a congratulatory speech for the announcement of the Declaration of Independence, and then they had a meal. Afterward, all the participants hurrahed for national independence and drank a toast. They then told Ahn Soon-hwan, the owner of Taehwagwan, to call the administration office of the Japanese Government-General of Korea and tell them that the national representatives of Korea were having a party to celebrate the independence of Korea. At around 5:30 pm, about 80 Japanese military police and policemen came to Taehwagwan and arrested the 29 people.
      When the national representatives had the ceremony for the declaration of independence at 2 pm, many students gathered at Tapgol Park. Since the national representatives did not appear when the time was up, the representatives of the students including Kang Gi-deok came to Taehwagwan and urged the national representatives to go to Tapgol Park together with them. The national representatives refused to do so, worried that the declaration of independence would turn into a riot. Meanwhile, at Tapgol Park where 3,000~4,000 demonstrators were waiting for the national representatives, Jeong Jae-yong went to the Octagonal Pavilion and read the Declaration of Independence aloud. He was a Christian leader from Haeju “in his 30s wearing white traditional Korean clothes with beard and mustache.” After the reading of the Declaration of Independence, the demonstrators hurrahed for national independence and began marching out of Tapgol Park.
      Coming out of Tapgol Park, the demonstrators marched toward Dongdaemun Gate and Jongno Street. The main group of the demonstrators went up to Namdaemun Station, turned right, and headed for Seosomun. Some of them marched toward the French legation. At that time, Park Seung-yeong, a student of Gyeongseong Law School, went into the French legation to ask the people in the legation to “notify the French government that Korea has declared its independence with the participation of numerous people.“ The main group of demonstrators went over the hill of Seosomun, passed Taepyeong-ro, and gathered in front of Daehanmun Gate. There, they joined other demonstrators who came directly to Daehanmun Gate from Jongno.
      The demonstrators who gathered in front of Daehanmun Gate of Deoksugung Palace marched again in several groups. The first group went out in the direction of the Gwanghwamun Gate intersection and marched toward Gyeongbokgung Palace. The second group passed Yeongseongmun Gate on the left side of Deoksugung Palace, hurrahed for national independence, and then went to Seodaemun Gate and marched along the old castle town. The third group went into Deoksugung Palace and insisted that they wail at the funeral parlor of Emperor Gojong and argued with the military police and policemen. Some of the demonstrators slipped into the funeral parlor amid the confusion and finished offering their condolences. The fourth group marched toward the building of the Japanese Government-General of Korea located at the bottom of Mt. Namsan hurrahing for national independence. Meanwhile, the demonstrators marching toward Dongdaemun Gate after coming out of Tapgol Park changed direction in front of Danseongsa Theater at Jongno 3-ga and headed for Changdeokgung Palace, which was the residence of Emperor Sunjong. After hurrahing in front of Changdeokgung Palace, the demonstrators marched toward the Hospital of the Japanese Government-General of Korea located on the right.
      The demonstration that began in downtown Seoul spread to the outskirts in the evening. At about 8 pm, 200 people gathered at the Mapo electric car stop to hold a demonstration. At around 11 pm, more than 200 students held an independence demonstration near Yonhee College in Sinchon.
      Embarrassed at the independence demonstration, the Japanese Government-General of Korea could hardly suppress the demonstration with only military police and policemen. Thus, he mobilized 3 infantry companies and 1 cavalry platoon of the Japanese army stationed in Yongsan to break up the demonstrators. Though the demonstration that day was a peaceful march with hurrahing for national independence by 10,000 people, a total of 174 people including the 29 national representatives were taken to the Japanese police station.

    • March First Independence Movement at the Seoul Station square
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      March First Independence Movement at the Seoul Station square

      When the Paris Peace Conference was held in November 1918 for the post-war readjustment after the First World War, a national independence movement was organized led by the religious circles including Chondoism and Christianity to highlight the matter of the national independence of Korea in the international society. At that time, the representatives of the college students in Seoul were preparing their own independence movement. The students of Yonhee College, Boseong Law & Commercial School, Gyeongseong Medical College, etc. accepted the request of the national representatives for unification. They agreed to join the national representatives in the March First independence demonstration, and then they were to hold the second independence demonstration on March 5 themselves.
      In the morning of March 5, tens of thousands of local people returning to their homes and citizens and students gathered in front of Namdaemun Station at 9 am. Kim Won-byeok, a student of Yonhee College, and Kang Gi-deok, a student of Boseong Law & Commercial School, rode rickshaws separately and waved a large flag reading “The Independence of Korea” and led the crowd in the direction of Namdaemun Gate. The “Joseon Independence Newspaper” was distributed to the crowd. When the demonstrators arrived at a point near Namdaemun Gate, the police forcefully stopped the demonstrators and arrested Kim Won-byeok and Kang Gi-deok who were leading the demonstration. Nonetheless, the demonstrators broke through the police barricade and continued a large-scale demonstration shouting “National Independence of Korea.” The demonstrators were broken up through the brutal suppression by the police when they arrived at Bosingak Pavilion after passing Namdaemun Market and Joseon Bank.

  • Gyeonggi-do
    • March First Independence Movement in Songsan
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      March First Independence Movement in Songsan

      The demonstration for national independence in Songsan-myeon began in Sagang-ri with the hurrahing of about 100 people on March 26 under the direction of Hong Myeon. It was a very peaceful demonstration. Two days later, on market day on March 28, however, more than 500 people had a large-scale independence demonstration, and the crowd clashed with the Japanese military police who tried to take Hong Myeon and a couple of other demonstrators to the police substation; in the process, they tussled with the demonstrators and fired at Hong Myeon. When Hong Myeon fell down on the spot, the entire crowd got angry and attacked the military police. Sensing a crisis, the military police fled to the Sagang-ri police substation riding bicycles, but the angry crowd followed them with stones and clubs and finally killed Lieutenant Noguchi. The Japanese military police and policemen retaliated against the protesting people of Songsan-myeon on April 12. That day, 5 military policemen, 7 soldiers, and armed policemen and assistant policemen came to Songsan-myeon and arrested and detained people indiscriminately and set fire to civilian houses. About 200 out of 525 houses in 6 villages in Sagang-ri, Bongga-ri, Samjon-ri, Yukil-ri, Masan-ri, and Jungsong-ri were burned down -- 82 out of 131 houses in Sagang-ri and 47 out of 57 houses in Bongga-ri.

    • March First Independence Movement in Seongjin
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      March First Independence Movement in Seongjin

      The first demonstration was held in Hwadae-dong of Haga-myeon on March 14. It is not known who led the demonstration, but all the people knew that the hurrah demonstration was to be held that day. At 11 am, 5,000 people took to the streets to have a demonstration. When the demonstrators arrived at the military police substation, the military police opened fire, killing 5 people instantly.
      The people of Haga-myeon got furious at the news, and more than 1,000 villagers gathered at Hwadae Market the next day, March 15, to hold an independence demonstration. The demonstrators beat up the head of Haga-myeon and went to the military police substation. The military police opened fire and killed 4 people instantly. A teenager named Dong Pung-shin ran out to the site of demonstration upon hearing that her father was killed in the demonstration and led the independence demonstration. Arrested by the police, she later died in Seodaemun Prison in 1921 at age 17.
      On March 16, more than 400 people held a demonstration at Agan-myeon Market. The military police came to the scene, broke up the demonstrators, and closed the market. On March 17, the students of Bochon School and the villagers of Jungpyeong-dong held a demonstration in Bochon-dong of Sanggo-myeon. On March 18, more than 700 people hurrahed and marched at a cow market. Two persons died instantly when the military police opened fire. On March 22, 40 people hurrahed while waving Taegeukgi at Seonjigok Village of Unmandae.

    • March First Independence Movement in Suwon
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      March First Independence Movement in Suwon

      The demonstration for national independence in Suwon was held from late March to early April 1919. At that time, the pattern of movement was generally intense. The representative demonstration for independence was the one held on April 3 jointly by the people of Jangan-myeon and Ujeong-myeon, planned by Cha Hee-sik, Cha Byeong-hyeok, etc. It began with the torch demonstration on the hill of Deokjeong-ri, Jangan-myeon. The more than 2,000 demonstrators read the Declaration of Independence aloud and hurrahed for the national independence of Korea at Joam Marketplace in Seokpo-ri, and then trashed the office of Jangan-myeon urging Kim Hyeon-muk, head of Jangan-myeon, to join the demonstration for independence. They hurrahed for national independence at nearby Mt. Ssangbongsan and then marched toward the office of Ujeong-myeon. The demonstrators destroyed documents at the office of Ujeong-myeon and set fire to the building. At around 5 pm, they stormed the police substation in Hwasu-ri with clubs. The demonstrators threw stones at the Japanese policemen who blocked them by firing blanks. There were casualties on both sides. A total of 27 demonstrators including Cha Hee-seok and Lee Yeong-soe were arrested by the Japanese police in the independence demonstration held that day. Brutal killings were committed by the Japanese military and policemen in Je-am-ri of Hyangnam-myeon.
      At around 2 pm on April 15, more than 20 Japanese military and policemen led by First Lieutenant Arida arrived in Je-am-ri and avenged the death of a Japanese police commissioner in the independence demonstration in Balan on April 5. They deceived the villagers, saying they had something to announce to the civilians, and gathered about 30 Christians and Chondoism believers at Je-am-ri Church. When the innocent farmers got to the church, they locked up all the doors and windows of the church and opened fire at the civilians. A woman put a baby outside the window and pleaded for her child’s life, but they stabbed mother and child to death. After the brutal massacre, they burned the church to leave no traces. The people who were still alive were killed by the fire. A total of 28 people were killed by the brutality. In addition, the Japanese military and policemen burned down 31 houses including the church building. Such brutality infuriated foreign missionaries and even some conscientious Japanese people. Frank Schofield, a British missionary, sent the “Report of a brutality in Suwon” to the US with photos of the horrible scene. English newspapers in Japan such as Japan Advertiser and Japan Chronicle reported the massacre in detail with the testimony of witnesses. In addition, the Union of Japanese Christian Churches dispatched a delegation to the site and urged Japan to reflect on such act. Saito, a Japanese scholar of English literature, saw the site and wrote a long poem titled “A massacre” to show the deep regret of intellectuals. In addition, intense independence demonstrations were held in Songsan-myeon from March 26 to March 28 and in Osan of Seongho-myeon on March 29. Meanwhile, on March 29, on her way to Jahye Hospital, Kim Hyang-hwa, a geisha who belonged to the Suwon Geisha Association, led many other geishas in simultaneously shouting for the national independence of Korea.

    • March First Independence Movement in Jangan-myeon of Suwon-gun
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      March First Independence Movement in Jangan-myeon of Suwon-gun

      The declaration of independence by the national representatives and the demonstration for national independence began on March 1, 1919 and spread throughout the nation. Baek Nak-yeol, a roving evangelist of Chondoism in Suchon-ri, Jangan-myeon, and Kim Seong-yeol in Paltan-myeon, etc. returned after participating in the independence demonstration in Seoul and planned a demonstration for national independence in the nearby regions. In late March and early April, torch demonstrations were held on the hills of Jangan-myeon and Ujeong-myeon, and strong independence demonstrations took place in the regions of Suwon and Anseong. Governing Korea by military rule during the 1910, the Japanese Government-General of Korea reinforced the function of "Myeon" and replaced the chief of almost every Myeon with a pro-Japanese person to take over local administration. In contrast, many village heads sided with the residents, and Jangan-myeon was a representative region. On April 3, the heads of the villages in Jangan-myeon ordered village clerks to mobilize all the residents. At around 10:30, more than 200 people gathered at the office of Jangan-myeon and urged the chief of Jangan-myeon to hurrah for the national independence of Korea. The crowd then trashed the office of Jangan-myeon and went to Mt. Ssangbongsan bordering Ujeong-myeon. They hurrahed for national independence at Mt. Ssangbongsan and joined forces with the residents of Ujeong-myeon. The number of demonstrators increased to about 2,000. The demonstrators broke into the office of Ujeong-myeon and burned down the police substation in Hwasu-ri. They tracked down Police Officer Gawabada who shot people and executed him. At the dawn of April 4, one platoon of troops belonging to the 78th Regiment, 39th Brigade, 20th Division of the Japanese Army led by First Lieutenant Arida (the driving force behind the massacre in Je-am-ri) began arson attacks and gunfire. They opened fire and searched houses illegally several times. A total of 276 houses were burned down, and thousands of residents were tortured. Among them, 34 people were indicted and sentenced to a maximum of 10 years' imprisonment.

    • March First Independence Movement in Anseong
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      March First Independence Movement in Anseong

      The March First Independence Movement in Anseong-gun began on March 11 in Anseong-eup, and intense demonstrations took place consecutively in the regions of Juksan, Yangseong, and Wongok. The independence demonstration in the town of Anseong-eup on March 30 was led by Yun Soon-cheol, Koh Seong-jun, Han Guk-cho, etc. who made 70 pieces of Taegeukgi for the more than 200 people who demonstrated in the marketplace in the afternoon. The next day, Ju Dong-seop, Han Sam-seok, Kwon Eop-dong, etc. led the residents who went up the hill to hold an independence demonstration. The biggest and most intense independence demonstration in Anseong-gun was the joint demonstration of Yangseong-myeon and Wongok-myeon. At first, they held the independence demonstration separately, and then converged in Seong-myeon. On April 1 at around 8 pm, Lee Yu-seok, Hong Chang-seop, Choi Eun-sik, etc. led more than 1,000 residents of Wongok-myeon to hurrah for national independence in front of the office of Wongok-myeon located in Oegacheon-ri. Afterward, they marched toward Yangseong-myeon holding torches, with the chief of Wongok-myeon in front.
      The demonstrators decided to trash the police substation, post office, and Myeon office in Yangseong-myeon. When they arrived in Yangseong-myeon, they met the 1,000 people of Yangseong-myeon on their way home after holding an independence demonstration near the police substation in Donghang-ri. At this time, the number of demonstrators increased to 2,000. At around 10 pm, they stormed the police substation and the night duty room. They burned the police building and dressed Japanese policemen in Korean coats and had them hurrah for the national independence of Korea. They then stormed the drugstore run by a Japanese and the house of a usurer and destroyed and set fire to equipment. They also trashed the post office and chopped down 3 telephone poles with an ax to cut off communication with nearby police substations. Moreover, they went to the office of Yangseong-myeon and destroyed documents and equipment and went home after hurrahing three times on the hill for the national independence of Korea. The residents of Wongok-myeon returned home at 4 am the next day. They trashed the office of Wongok-myeon again and set it on fire in a fierce independence demonstration. As many as 126 people were caught, and they served time for such independence demonstration. Meanwhile, in Ijuk-myeon, Lee Gi-hun, Yun Sang-gu, Lee Eung-sik, Choi Chang-dal, etc. led the independence demonstration on April 1 held by the more than 100 residents who went out to do forced labor for road repair. In Iljuk-myeon, Oh Sun-gyeong, Jo Seong-haeng, etc. mobilized more than 200 residents for the independence demonstration held on April 2.

    • March First Independence Movement in Ijuk-myeon of Anseong-gun
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      March First Independence Movement in Ijuk-myeon of Anseong-gun

      Ijuk-myeon of Anseong-gun used to be the county side of Juksan-gun. In 1914, it became Ijuk-myeon of Anseong-gun as a result of the Administrative District Reorganization implemented by the Japanese colonial rule. The March First Independence Movement in Anseong-gun was very intense. On March 11, 1919, 50 people demonstrated in the town of Anseong-eup. Afterward, demonstrations took place sporadically; 500~600 people demonstrated on March 30, with 3,000 people demonstrating on March 31, again in the town of Anseong-eup. On April 1, fierce independence demonstrations were held in Wongok-myeon and Yangseong-myeon of Anseong-gun. The police substation in Yangseong-myeon and the office of Wongok-myeon were burned, and the post office, the office of Yangseong-myeon, and the stores run by Japanese people were trashed. This independence demonstration in Wongok-myeon and Yangseong-myeon was one of the 3 biggest worthy uprisings together with the demonstration in Oksang-myeon, Euiju-gun, Pyeonganbuk-do and the demonstration in Suan-gun, Hwanghae-do, which were mentioned by the Japanese Empire in the trial of the national representatives of Korea. On April 1, 50 students of Juksan Public Primary School in Ijuk-myeon hurrahed for national independence at the school grounds and again shouted for national independence at the police substation in Juksan together with hundreds of residents of Duhyeon-ri, etc. At that time, Lee Gi-hun and Lee Eung-sik of Duhyeon-ri and Choi Chang-dal of Jangjae-ri suggested to the workers who were doing forced labor for road repair in Duhyeon-ri that they hurrah for the "national independence of Korea," and they participated in the demonstration in Juksan. On April 2, 2,000 residents from Jangwon-ri, Janggye-ri, Juksan-ri, and Maesan-ri of Ijuk-myeon gathered at Juksan Market in the evening and held independence demonstrations in front of the Juksan police substation, post office, office of Ijuk-myeon, and primary school. The 50 students of Juksan Public Primary School joined the demonstration in Juksan Market holding Taegeukgi in their hands.

    • March First Independence Movement in Suam-myeon of Siheung-gun
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      March First Independence Movement in Suam-myeon of Siheung-gun

      The March First Independence Movement in Seoul impacted Siheung-gun, too. Beginning with the demonstration of the students of the primary school in Yeongdeungpo, Siheung-gun on March 7, 1919, the demonstration for national independence spread to the farmers in rural areas by late March. Voluntary independence demonstrations were held consecutively in Buk-myeon (Mar. 23), Sindong-myeon (Mar. 25), Seo-i-myeon (Mar. 27), Seo-myeon (Mar. 27~29), Gwacheon-myeon (Mar. 29~30), Gunja-myeon (Mar. 29), etc. The heads of 18 villages in Suam-myeon of Siheung-gun received a circular letter on March 29 to gather at Biseok Village the next day. Upon hearing the news, Yun Byeong-so made Taegeukgi together with 30 villagers and participated in the demonstration on March 30. Hong Sun-chil in Wa-ri encouraged the participation of servants, saying that “the national land will be owned by tenant farmers if Korea becomes independent.” As a result, about 2,000 people gathered in Biseok Village on March 30 to hold independence demonstrations in front of the Confucian school, office of Suam-myeon, and primary school. Lee Bong-mun of Suam-ri led the villagers to the house of the head of Suam-ri at night and protested to the head of Suam-ri, who was passive in the independence demonstration.

  • Gangwon-do
    • March First Independence Movement in Cheolwon
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      March First Independence Movement in Cheolwon

      The plan for the March First Independence Movement in Cheolwon began with Choi Byeong-hun who received 200 copies of the Declaration of Independence from the Archdiocese of Chondoism in neighboring Pyeonggang and distributed them to the Chondoism believers in Cheolwon, who then distributed the Declaration of Independence in the county and planned for an independence demonstration. Nonetheless, the plan was exposed to the Japanese police, and all the 11 leaders were arrested. As a result, the plan was temporarily thwarted. After that, the Christian world planned the holding of an independence demonstration on March 7 mainly with the youth members and students, but it was deferred to March 10 at the suggestion of the youth members after seeing the situation of Seoul. On March 10, Rev. Park Yeon-seo led the demonstration, which was held in two groups. One group was composed of the students of Cheolwon Agricultural School and primary school. The other group consisted of the young members of the church and the local youths. They converged at the Cheolwon-gun office, and the number of demonstrators increased to 1,000. They hurrahed for the national independence of Korea, went to the Japanese military police station, and demanded the release of those who had been arrested before. When their demand went unheeded, they went to the county office and made the Japanese chief clerk and other employees of the county office hurrah for national independence under force of threat and seized the county governor who fled to the house of Yun Tae-hang, urging him to hurrah for national independence, too.
      After the demonstration that day, more than 200 young men marched toward Cheolwon Station and hurrahed for national independence at the passengers who were in a train that was at a stop. The passengers in the train including Jo Hwa-byeok responded favorably by hurrahing for national independence. They also held a speech session for national independence, went to the place of Park Hee-byeong, a pro-Japanese, and made him hurrah for national independence under force of threat. On March 18, the market day in Cheolwon, Lee Byeong-jun led hundreds of Chondoism believers in holding an independence demonstration. Meanwhile, in Galmal-myeon, Shin Seong-gyu, Kim Chil-ryong, etc. led more than 1,000 demonstrators on March 12 in holding independence demonstrations at the Cheongyang police substation and the office of Galmal-myeon. At that time, Hwang Hee-su, chief of Galmal-myeon, joined the independence demonstration, which lasted until dawn. People from distant places such as Dongmak-ri participated in the demonstration, bringing lunch in hemp cloth. The independence demonstration in Naemun-myeon was held on April 8, led by the Chondoism believers living in Dokgeom-ri including brothers Choi Jae-myeong and Choi Jae-cheong. More than 700 people held an intense independence demonstration, trashing the office of Bukchang-ri. The crowd was broken up by the military police of Seokgyo-ri who fired blanks.

  • Chungcheong-do
    • March First Independence Movement in Eumseong
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      March First Independence Movement in Eumseong

      The independence movement in Eumseong-gun began with the hurrahing of several students of a village school for national independence in the town on March 28. After that, almost every Myeon in Eumseong-gun held demonstrations for national independence at least once until April 11. The most representative demonstration for national independence in Eumseong-gun was the one held on April 1 in Hannae Marketplace under the direction of Kim Eul-gyeong, Lee Jung-gon, Kwon Jae-hak, Chu Seong-yeol, Lee Gyo-pil, etc. On April 1, thousands of people gathered and showed guts by storming the office of Soi-myeon and having Min Byeongsik, chief of Soi-myeon, lead the chant of the hurrah for national independence. Nonetheless, 9 people including Kim Eul-gyeong and Lee Jung-gon were detained by the Japanese policemen who were dispatched to the scene. Afterward, the demonstrators ran to the police substation and made a strong protest by breaking windows, calling for the release of the detainees. The Japanese police opened fire indiscriminately at the crowd, killing 12 people and injuring more than 40.
      In Eumseong-eup, a demonstration for national independence was held on March 28 at 2 pm mainly by the students of village schools. On April 6 at 9 pm, more than 500 demonstrators lit a signal fire at the mountain and held a demonstration. In Samseong-myeon, Lee Seong-gyo, Lim Baek-gyu, Yu Hae-gil, etc. led the demonstration on March 20 and held the demonstration for national independence by lighting a signal fire at the nearby mountain. On April 2 at around 8 pm, more than 600 people held a demonstration for national independence in each village, and then gathered at the office of Samseong-myeon located in Cheonpyeong-ri. They broke the door and windows of the office with sickles and clubs, hurrahed for national independence at the police substation, and then dispersed at around 2 am. In Maengdong-myeon, Kim Dong-hwan, a Chondoism believer, distributed the Declaration of Independence on March 20 and held a demonstration for national independence together with hundreds of demonstrators by lighting a signal fire. In addition, separate demonstrations for national independence were held in Ssangjeong-ri on April 2 and April 3 and in Masan-ri on April 3. In Gamgok-myeon, hundreds of villagers of Juchon-ri and Munchon-ri held the demonstration for national independence from April 1 to 4 at Mt. Eungbongsan and the office of Gamgok-myeon. Separate demonstrations for national independence were held in Daeso-myeon and Naesong-ri of Geumwang-myeon on April 2, at Bocheon Marketplace of Wonnam-myeon on April 5, and in Jubong-ri on April 11.

    • March First Independence Movement in Cheonan
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      March First Independence Movement in Cheonan

      The most representative demonstration for national independence in Cheonan City was the one held in Awunae Marketplace of Galjeon-myeon on April 1, 1919. The demonstration is also called the "Yu Gwan-sun Incident" as Yu Gwan-sun, a student of Ewha College, was one of the demonstrators. The demonstration began when Yu Gwan-sun, a daughter of Yu Jung-gwon from Earthworm Village of Yongdu-ri, brought with her the Declaration of Independence after participating in the demonstration for national independence held at Namdaemun Gate on March 5 and reported the situation of Seoul in detail to Jo In-won and Yu Jung-gwon, the elders of the village, and Yu Jung-mu who was her uncle. In Galjeon-myeon, Jo In-won led the hurried preparations for the demonstration for national independence scheduled to be held on the market day of Awunae Marketplace. Meanwhile, they heard the news that young people in their 20s in the neighboring Susin-myeon and Seongnam-myeon including Kim Sang-hun and Hong Il-seon were lighting the signal fire and hurrahing for national independence at night for several days. The masterminds of the two groups met and agreed to hold a joint demonstration for national independence. On April 1 at around one o’clock, Jo In-won read the Declaration of Independence aloud before a crowd of more than 3,000 people, hurrahed for national independence, and marched toward the military police substation. Then the Japanese military police fired a machine gun indiscriminately, resulting in many casualties including Yu Jung-gwon. The demonstrators retreated temporarily; unable to control their anger, they went to the military police substation with the victims on their backs. They were about to act violently but were stopped and persuaded by Jo In-won, so they calmed down without instigating a clash.
      Nonetheless, the military police urgently dispatched from Cheonan opened fire indiscriminately, killing 19 people and injuring 30 on the spot. Many people were arrested. Among the arrested masterminds was Yu Gwan-sun who kept hurrahing even in prison and finally died a brutal death. In addition, an intense demonstration for national independence was held at Ipjang Marketplace twice on March 20 and March 28 by the female students of Yangdae Girls’ College run by an American and the workers of Jiksan Gold Mine. On March 29, about 3,000 people gathered in Cheonan-eup to hold a demonstration for national independence, and 26 of them were arrested by the Japanese military police. On March 14, 120 students of Mokcheon Primary School held a demonstration for national independence and clashed with the Japanese military police, resulting in the arrest of 4 of them. On March 31, thousands of people held a demonstration for national independence in Seonghwan-myeon.

    • March First Independence Movement in Geumsan
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      March First Independence Movement in Geumsan

      At the time the March First Independence Movement took place, Geumsan was part of Jeollabuk-do Province, not Chungcheongnam-do Province. The pattern of the March First Independence Movement in Jeollabuk-do was much different from that of Jeollanam-do Province. The March First Independence Movement in Jeollabuk-do took place before that of Jeollanam-do and was much more intense than the one in Jeollanam-do. In contrast, the March First Independence Movement in Jeollanam-do took place later and proceeded in a relatively peaceful demonstration. In Jeollabuk-do, numerous students and young people as well as the public worked together for the national independence of Korea by holding demonstrations for about 40 days from early March to mid-April. Kim Yong-sul and Lim Seung-hwan, who were residents of Geumsan-myeon, agreed to hold large-scale demonstrations in Geumsan-gun by establishing a connection with the March First Independence Movements in different regions of the nation. On March 22, 20 representatives of each Myeon gathered at the house of Kim Yong-sul in Sangok-ri to set up specific plans and prepare a manifesto. In the morning of March 23, the market day of Geumsan-eup, Gu Ho-yeol, Byeon Hee-jo, etc. distributed the "Geumsan Manifesto" that they printed the day before to Jeong Pil-jong, Kim Tae-seok, Kim Il-chan, and other merchants who were coming to the market. At around 2 pm, the time indicated in the manifesto, Kim Yong-sul and Lim Seung-hwan appeared at the upper part of the cow market with more than 20 young people and instigated the people around them by hurrahing for the “National Independence of Korea.” Hearing the hurrah, thousands of people around them began to respond favorably.
      Upon hearing the news, the squad of Japanese military police stationed in Geumsan-eup moved quickly and arrested several young people including Kim Yong-sul on the spot. The military police tried to suppress the people by firing blanks and wielding clubs, but the people did not disperse. The Japanese military police planned to mark the masterminds of the demonstration in the front line with ink and arrested Lim Seunghwan, too. The exact number of people who participated in the demonstration for national independence that day is not known, but various materials confirm that thousands of people participated. That night, at around 10 pm, more than 30 people including Kim Il-nam hurrahed for the “National Independence of Korea” loudly at the foot of Mt. Namsan in Geumsan-eup and marched toward town. The residents went out and joined the demonstration but were soon stopped by the Japanese military police. On March 25, a demonstration for national independence was held again in Jewon-ri of Jewon-myeon located on the east of Geumsan-myeon. Park Yeong-gyu, a young man living in Jewon-ri, had been thinking about holding an independence movement earlier; he made up his mind after hearing the news of the demonstration for national independence at the marketplace of Geumsan-eup, which took place on March 23. He made a flag that looked like Taegeukgi by drawing Taegeuk on a traditional Korean paper and writing the phrase "Hurrah for the National Independence of Korea" on both sides of the Taegeuk in Korean and Chinese letters at his home in the evening of March 25. He then attached the flag to a sorghum stalk.
      After that, he sounded the bell and beat the drum kept at the center of the village to gather all the village people. They repeated hurrahing together and walking around the village many times. The next day, March 26, at around 4 pm, Park Yeong-gyu persuaded the villagers who were returning from forced labor for road repair to join in the demonstration for national independence. That night, Park Yeong-gyu marched along the village road together with several young men for demonstration. The squad of Japanese military police stationed in Geumsan tried to stop him. He refused to be deterred and instead emphasized the legitimacy of the independence movement. On March 28 (Feb. 27 in the lunar calendar), the Japanese military police who had witnessed a demonstration for national independence earlier on March 23 kept guard from early in the morning at the marketplace of Geumsan-eup. Even the county governor and pro-Japanese people were mobilized to monitor the actions of the residents. At around 6 pm, the military police seemed to rest easy as the stores were closing and the street stalls and peddlers began to pack up. Nonetheless, the hundreds of people who seemed ready to go home suddenly waved Taegeukgi and hurrahed. They began to march in an orderly manner. Other people who were standing here and there joined the parade, and the number of demonstrators increased. Declarations and letters of encouragement were distributed, too. The embarrassed military police told the people to disperse by firing blanks, but the line did not break, and the people marched in town. The Japanese military did not dare stop the orderly action of the crowd. That night, at around 10 pm, the signal fire was lit again at Mt. Seodaesan, and shouts of hurrah erupted in all the villages of Geumsan-gun. The Japanese military police could not respond properly as it was too late, and the demonstrations took place at the same time in every village. The next day, they arrested more than 20 people including Kim Hyeon-jae, Han Cheol-jong, Kim Bong-jun, and Jeong Hae-jun in Geumsan-myeon.
      On March 31, a demonstration for national independence took place again in Goknam-ri of Boksu-myeon. At around 2 pm, the residents of Goknam-ri including Kim Yeong-ho, Jeong Jae-cheol, and Oh Yeon-gu explained about the demonstration for national independence that would be taking place throughout the nation to the people who were repairing the road in Goknam-ri village. Soon they led the demonstration hurrahing for the "National Independence of Korea" aloud, and about 200 residents of nearby Suyeong-ri at the site of road repair joined them. Yu Yeong-jun and several others who lived in Goknam-ri waved Taegeukgi while hurrahing. The military police who were supervising the road repair work tried to stop them, but Kim Yeong-ho, Oh Yeon-gu, etc. ignored them and kept hurrahing to direct the parade, and more and more people joined them. Soon after, reinforcements were urgently dispatched from the military police substation in Jinsan-myeon, and the demonstration seemed to have been suppressed. Note, however, that Kim Yeong-ho, etc. made documents and delivered them to the head of Baekam-ri and other people and urged the residents to rescue the people who had been arrested. That night, at around 11 pm, more than 200 people hurrahed for national independence loudly again and paraded to the town of Jinsan-myeon in lines. In response, the Japanese military police stationed in Jinsan-myeon came to disperse the crowd, and 7 people including Kim Yeong-ho and Jeong Jae-cheol were arrested. Even after that, the March First Independence Movement in Geumsan continued sporadically late at night at the mountain. In the torch demonstration for national independence at the mountain, Ha Hong-hak was killed, and Han Cheol-jong and Kim Hyeon-jae died later in Jeonju Prison.

  • Gyeongsang-do
    • March First Independence Movement in Daegu
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      March First Independence Movement in Daegu

      While the March First Independence Movement in Seoul was being prepared secretly, the leaders of the Christian world in Daegu such as Lee Man-jip, Lee Sang-baek, and Baek Nam-chae heard the plan for the demonstration for national independence from Lee Gap-seong who was the contact for the Gyeongsang-do region. They then obtained the Declaration of Independence from Lee Yong-sang, a student of Severance Medical College, and met the people who attended the same church including Kim Tae-ryeon and Kim Yeongseo and agreed to hold a demonstration for national independence on March 8, the market day of Seomunwoe Town. Students of Gyeseong School, Daegu Higher Primary School, Sinmyeong Girls’ High School, and Church School as well as the residents, Christians, and Chondoism believers on the roadside joined them, with the size of the crowd reaching more than 1,000. When the demonstrators for national independence arrived at the office of Dalseong-gun County, however, they were stopped by the Japanese military police and policemen armed with 5 or 6 sets of machine gun, and as many as 157 people were arrested by the military police.
      Still, the demonstrators refused to budge, and the sense of resistance of the students and residents in Daegu kept growing. They planned for a second demonstration. Embarrassed, the Japanese police ordered Daegu Higher Primary School, Gyeseong School, and Sinmyeong Girls’ High School to close from March 10, and the police were put on high alert. The students went underground and expanded the demonstration for national independence to other regions. In addition, the students of Jibang Hangnim School annexed to Donghwasa Temple including Kwon Cheong-hak and Kim Mun-ok held a demonstration for national independence on March 30 at the marketplace of Namnumoe in Daegu with more than 3,000 people. On April 15, more than 50 people who gathered at the Daemyeong-dong cemetery in Daegu to hold a memorial service for the daughter of Choi Gyeong-sam started a demonstration for national independence.

    • March First Independence Movement in Sacheon
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      March First Independence Movement in Sacheon

      Three persons -- Hwang Sun-ju, Park Gi-hyeon, and Kim Jong-cheol -- participated in the worthy uprising in Jinju on March 18, 1919. They obtained the Declaration of Independence from Kang Dal-yeong and decided to hold a worthy uprising on March 21 upon finishing the graduation ceremony at Sacheon Public Primary School. Note, however, that the demonstration for national independence started earlier as Lee Yun-jo hurrahed for national independence before the graduation ceremony while waving the Taegeukgi. The three masterminds were detained by the Japanese police. On April 14, Yu Seung-gap and Sohn Gye-muk hurrahed for national independence in front of a group of more than 100 people who were returning home after a road repair work in Jungseonpo. All the workers responded favorably to the move, and the demonstrators for national independence headed for Sacheon-eup. Many of the demonstrators were arrested and injured by the Japanese military police who were dispatched urgently. Meanwhile, on March 25 in Samcheonpo, Park Jong-sil and Kim U-yeol led more than 1,000 people in a demonstration for national independence. Still, the masterminds were arrested, and the demonstrators were dispersed by the Japanese police. At that time, Kang Il-seon, a Korean detective, severely abused and oppressed the arrested masterminds of the demonstration. The residents rose again in fury on March 26. In addition, demonstrations for national independence took place in Songjeon-ri of Gonyang-myeon on March 3 and April 19, and Song Chan-hong and Lee Ju-hyo led the demonstration for national independence in Gupyeong-ri of Seopo-myeon on April 10 and again on April 16.

    • March First Independence Movement in Andong
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      March First Independence Movement in Andong

      In Andong, the one-man demonstration of Lee Sang-dong served as the primary catalyst in the demonstration for national independence that took place on March 17, 1919 at Ye-an Marketplace and the succeeding demonstrations that lasted until the end of March. At first, Kang Dae-geuk, a Korean student who had studied in Japan, and other people were supposed to hold the demonstration for national independence on March 12, the market day of Ye-an, but they could not do so due to the tight surveillance by the Japanese colonial officials. Nonetheless, the people including Shin Sang-myeon, chief of Ye-an-myeon, again planned the holding of the demonstration on March 17, the next market day, and produced and copied the declaration of independence and made Taegeukgi. On March 17 at around 3:30 pm, the masterminds of the demonstration for national independence mobilized thousands of merchants and customers at the market and marched in the marketplace hurrahing for national independence. The demonstrators went to the police substation at around 6 pm and demanded the release of the detainees, trashing the police substation by throwing stones. Nonetheless, the crowd dispersed after 25 people were arrested by the Japanese soldiers who were dispatched from the Andong garrison. At the second demonstration for national independence held on March 22, the demonstrators fought by throwing stones at the Japanese soldiers who opened fire indiscriminately. A total of 13 demonstrators were injured. The most intense demonstration for national independence in the county was held in Andong-eup. On March 18, 3,000 demonstrators including Christians and Chondoism believers held a demonstration for national independence, trashing and setting fire to the county office, police station, and district court. There were several casualties due to the firing by the Japanese army. Furious at the brutality of the Japanese colonial government, more than 3,000 demonstrators composed of Christians, Chondoism believers, farmers, etc. surrounded government buildings on March 23 and threw stones again. A total of 14 people were killed on the spot, and dozens more were injured following the ruthless firing by the Japanese army. In Gilan-myeon, Sohn Yeong-hak, Kim Jeong-ik, Kim Jeong-yeon, Jang Du-hee, etc. led more than 500 demonstrators on March 21, the market day of Cheonji, and trashed the office of Gilan-myeon and police substation by a surprise attack. Here, too, the demonstrators fought by throwing stones at the Japanese police, who did not hesitate to fire with live ammunition.
      In Imdong-myeon, Yu Yeon-seong, Yu Dong-su, Lee Gang-uk, etc. led more than 1,000 demonstrators on March 21, the market day of Pyeonhyang, to have a parade for national independence. The Japanese police then fired blanks, and the angry demonstrators stormed the police substation and destroyed documents and equipment. They also took the weapons kept in the police substation including guns, threw them into the well, and continued the demonstration for national independence until 3 am. Nonetheless, 57 people were arrested by the Japanese soldiers dispatched from Andong, and they served time in prison. In Imha-myeon, Lim Chan-dol, Sohn Dol-i, etc. held a demonstration for national independence on March 21 at around 9 pm in front of the police substation together with more than 500 demonstrators. The Japanese police opened fire, and three persons were killed on the spot; the demonstrators then stormed the police substation and the office of Imha-myeon. Additional demonstrations for national independence were held in Imbuk-myeon on March 22 under the direction of Kwon Tae-hwan, Iljik-myeon on March 21 under the direction of Lee Gu-deok, Donghu-myeon on March 23, Togye-dong of Dosan-myeon on March 18, Pungsan-myeon on March 24, and Pungnam-myeon on March 27.

    • March First Independence Movement in Euiseong
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      March First Independence Movement in Euiseong

      The demonstration for national independence in Euiseong-gun began on March 12 with the worthy uprising of the students of Bian Public Primary School and spread to Anpyeong-myeon, Bongyang-myeon, Jeomgok-myeon, Sinpyeong-myeon, Ga-eum-myeon, Chunsan-myeon, etc. until early April. The worthy uprising of the students of Bian Public Primary School began with Kim Won-hwi who went to Pyeongyang to enter Pyeongyang Biblical Seminary on March 3, witnessed the demonstration for national independence in Pyeongyang, and reported the incident to Rev. Park Yeong-hwa of the Presbyterian Church in Ssanggye-dong, Bian-myeon and urged that a worthy uprising be carried out. Meanwhile, Park U-hwan and Park Sang-dong, a student of Daegu Gyeseong School who had witnessed the worthy uprising in Daegu on March 10, joined the plan to hold the demonstration for national independence through the joint efforts of the students and Christians in the Anpyeong-dong region. The students of Bian Public Primary School including Woo Hee-won, Park Gi-geun, Park Man-nyeong, and Jeong In-seong planned to hold a demonstration for national independence on March 11 at Bian Marketplace, but the date was changed to March 12 due to the high alert of the Japanese police who had already obtained the information. On March 12, while the students who planned the thwarted March 11 demonstration were listening to a sermon in the principal’s office, the remaining 150 students went to the mountain and hurrahed for national independence all at once.
      Afterward, the 4 students who were listening to the sermon went out and hurrahed for national independence together. The Japanese police and the teachers dispersed the students forcibly and arrested the students who masterminded the demonstration. Some of the forcibly dispersed students went to Ssanggye-dong, Bian-myeon, at around 1 pm of the same day and joined the demonstration for national independence organized mainly by Christians. Through the influence of the worthy uprising of the primary school students, more than 100 people held demonstrations for national independence on March 13 and March 16 in Dongbu-dong, Bian-myeon under the direction of Kim Seok-geun, Lim Jae-ho, etc. The news reached Daesa-dong Church in Anpyeong-myeon. Kim Ok-don, Lee Buk-sul, etc. led the demonstrations for national independence held on March 15 and again -- continuously -- from March 17 to 19. Meanwhile, in Doriwon of Bongyang-myeon, Lee Yang-jun held a demonstration for national independence on March 19, the market day of Doriwon. The demonstrators dispersed in Daesa-dong joined him, and the size of the crowd increased to thousands. Nonetheless, the Japanese soldiers and policemen fired ruthlessly at the crowd. Three persons were killed, six were injured, and many were arrested. In addition, intense demonstrations for national independence were held in Jeomgok-myeon on March 16 and March 18 to 20, Euiseong-eup on March 18, and Deokbong-dong of Sinpyeong-myeon on March 25.

    • March First Independence Movement in Cheongdo
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      March First Independence Movement in Cheongdo

      The demonstration for national independence in Cheongdo began with Kim Sang-gu and Kim Jong-tae, young leaders who lived in Sinwon-dong of Unmun-myeon. They went to Seoul to pay their respects at the funeral of Emperor Gojong and witnessed the March First Independence Movement held in Seoul. After returning to Cheongdo, they planned for a demonstration for national independence with several other young men at the house of Kim U-gon, principal of Munmyeong School (a private school). They prepared more than 20 copies of the manifesto and posted them in important places in Bangeum-ri, Daecheon-ri, Ojin-ri, and Gongam-ri in Unmun-myeon. Due to such act, young men including Kim Jin-hyo were interrogated at the Unmun police substation on March 18. On their way home, they agreed to hold a demonstration for national independence immediately. They then went to the office of Unmun-myeon and had the 4 officials in the office write the phrase "National Independence of Korea" and wrote "Hurrah." They made a large flag with the letters and began a demonstration for national independence. Many people responded favorably, and they held a passionate but peaceful demonstration. Still, many people were detained for the demonstration. Meanwhile, Kim Bo-gon, who had gone to Pyeongyang to enter Pyeongyang Biblical Seminary, heard about the independence movement and returned home promptly. The demonstrators planned to hold a demonstration for national independence on March 17, the market day of Yucheon, but failed to do so. After that, more than 400 people stormed the house of 2 Japanese including Mizno on May 17 and retreated after beating them up. In addition, 7 farmers including Kim Jip-i held a demonstration for national independence on March 11 in Jangyeon-dong of Maejeon-myeon, and Lee Seung-deok and other students of Dansan Village School held demonstrations on March 30 and April 20 in Geoyeon-dong of Daeseong-myeon.

    • March First Independence Movement in Hapcheon
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      March First Independence Movement in Hapcheon

      Jeong Hyeon-sang, who had been staying in Seoul, came down to Sangbyeok-myeon when the March First Independence Movement took place, giving the Declaration of Independence he brought to Jeong Hyeon-ha. Meanwhile, Lee Gi-bok, too, received the Declaration of Independence from Lee Won-yeong and secretly planned for a demonstration for national independence. They united at the mediation of Jeong Yeon-pyo and held a demonstration for national independence together with about 400 people on March 18, the market day of Samga. The demonstrators were forcibly dispersed by the Japanese police, and 10 leaders were arrested. On March 19, the market day of Hapcheon, 16 leaders including Sim Jae-gi were arrested in the demonstration for national independence held by more than 500 people. The worthy uprising took place again on March 20 with a parade in town. At least 4 people were killed and 11 were injured when the Japanese police opened fire indiscriminately. As many as 22 people were arrested, serving time in prison. Meanwhile, Lim Sang-jong, a resident of Daebyeong-myeon, secretly brought the Declaration of Independence from Seoul and consulted with Kwon Yeong-do, Kwon Jung-bak, Jeong Si-gwon, Yu In-su, Kwon Yang-hee, Song Heon-gi, etc. They agreed to hold a demonstration on the market day of Chang-ri. On March 20, they held a demonstration for national independence with more than 4,000 people. The Japanese military police came and shot Lee Byeong-chu who was standing at the front. The excited mob trashed the police substation and the office of Daebyeong-myeon and burned documents. A total of 54 demonstrators were arrested following the suppression by Japanese soldiers.
      On March 21, the market day of Chogye-ri, more than 4,000 people held a demonstration for national independence under the direction of Lee Won-hwa, Jeon Ha-shin, Seong Man-yeong, Kim Deok-myeong, etc. Again, the Japanese police killed 2 persons, injured 10, and arrested many others. In Ssangbaek-myeon, more than 4,000 people paraded on March 22 in a demonstration for national independence. Gong Sa-gyeom was killed on the spot when the Japanese military police opened fire indiscriminately, with many people injured. In Myosan-myeon, more than 100 people held demonstrations for national independence on March 22 and March 23 under the direction of Yun Byeong-seok, Yun Byeong-eun, Yun Byeong-yang, etc. The Japanese police killed 2 persons and injured many people when they opened fire indiscriminately. Many others were arrested. In addition, on March 23 at around 3 pm, more than 13,000 people who came from Gahoe-myeon, Ssangbaek-myeon, and Samga-myeon staged a rally against the brutal Japanese rule in a plaza in front of Jeonggeumdang in Samga-eup. The people who spoke at the rally including Kim Jeon-eui, Jeong Bang-cheol, Kim Dal-hee, and Lim Jong-bong denounced the invasion of Japan and asserted that Korea should reclaim its national independence. The Japanese police began to fire when the lecture of the last speaker, Lim Jong-bong, was coming to a climax, fueling the national spirit. The crowd got furious at the sight of Lim Jong-bong falling down from the stairways. They went to the police substation and the post office holding sickles and clubs. The Japanese soldiers and police fired all at once. A total of 13 people were killed on the spot, and more than 30 were injured. Demonstrations for national independence were also held in Yaro-myeon on March 28, Mae-an-ri of Gaya-myeon on April 3, and Sulgok-ri of Bongsan-myeon on April 7. Many people were arrested by the Japanese military police.

    • March First Independence Movement in Changwon
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      March First Independence Movement in Changwon

      The fiercest demonstration for national independence in Changwon-gun took place in the three towns of Jinjeon-myeon, Jinbuk-myeon, and Jindong-myeon on April 3, 1919. Byeon Sang-tae, Kwon Yeong-dae, Kwon Tae-yong, etc. fled after masterminding the demonstration for national independence on March 28 at Gohyeon-ri Marketplace in Jindong-myeon and planned for a second demonstration. They secretly gathered new comrades and many sympathizers to hold a demonstration on April 3 at a streamside in Yangchon-ri of Jinjeop-myeon. With the attendance of thousands of people, they read the Declaration of Independence aloud and hurrahed for national independence. The people on the roadside responded favorably, and the size of the crowd increased to more than 5,000. When the demonstrators reached Sadong Bridge, however, 8 Japanese military policemen and assistants and more than 30 Japanese war veterans opened fire. Kim Su-dong, who was encouraging the crowd while waving a Taegeukgi at the front, was killed instantly. Then Byeon Gap-seok, who was standing next to Kim Su-dong, held the Taegeukgi again and rushed into the enemy camp. A Japanese military policeman drew a sword and killed him by cutting off both his shoulders. Furious, the demonstrators retaliated by throwing stones. In the end, 8 people were killed on the spot and at least 22 were injured.
      After the uprising in the three towns of Jinjeon-myeon, Jinbuk-myeon, and Jindong-myeon, the resistance against Japan grew further, and Korean people urged the owners of Japanese stores to go home and refused employment by Japanese people. That same day, 500∼600 people in Macheon-ri of Ungdong-myeon held a demonstration for national independence. They paraded toward the town of Ungcheon-eup holding Taegeukgi in their hands. The people on the roadside joined voluntarily, and the number of demonstrators increased to more than 3,000. Note, however, that 6 Japanese military policemen and 4 policemen were urgently dispatched from Jinhae. They violently stabbed at the crowd with bayonets. The demonstrators dispersed, and 32 were arrested. In addition, demonstrations for national independence were held in Changwon-eup on March 23 and again on April 2 by 6,000∼7,000 people, on Gadeokdo Island on April 11 by more than 400 people, and in Pasajeong in Sangnam-myeon on April 29 by more than 50 people.

    • March First Independence Movement in Gyeongju
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      March First Independence Movement in Gyeongju

      On March 9, 1919, Rev. Kim Gi-won of Sawol-ri Church in Gosan-myeon, Gyeongsan-gun, heard about the demonstration for national independence in Daegu and planned to hold an independence movement with the church as the center. He met with Rev. Park Nae-yeong of Dodong-ri Church in Gyeongju-myeon, Gyeongju-gun as well as the leaders of the church including Yun Gi-hyo and Park Mun-hong and suggested to them the holding of an independence movement, telling them the news of the demonstration for national independence in Daegu. In the evening of March 11 and March 12, Rev. Park Nae-yeong met 5~6 believers at Dodong-ri Church and decided to hold a demonstration for national independence on March 13, a big market day of Gyeongju. They prepared for the demonstration by making Taegeukgi at the house of Park Mun-hong. Nonetheless, the Gyeongju Police Station, which had been spying on the church, searched the houses of Rev. Park Nae-yeong and other persons related to the church on March 13, the day of the planned demonstration, at daybreak and found Taegeukgi. A total of 15 people including Rev. Park Nae-yeong and Park Mun-hong were taken to the police station for interrogation. The demonstration was not held on March 13 due to the arrest of all the masterminds. On March 15, a small market day in Gyeongju-eup, however, young patriots including Park Bong-rok, Seo Bong-ryong, Park Mu-hun, and Choi Seong-ryeol led a demonstration at 3:30 pm holding the Taegeukgi made on the night of March 12 at the house of Park Mun-hong and hurrahed together with the merchants. The police then dispersed the crowd and arrested the leaders of the demonstration. The demonstration for national independence planned for March 13 by Dodong-ri Church failed to be held, but it was reignited on March 15. A ten-month sentence was meted out on Rev. Park Nae-yeong and other leaders of the demonstration including Park Yeong-jo, Park Mun-hong, and Kim Hak-bong; an 8-month sentence was given to Choi Chang-su, a 6-month sentence, to Sohn Seok-bong and Choi Seong-ryeol, a 5-month sentence, to Kim Seong-gil and Park Bong-rok, and a 4-month sentence, to Kim Seong-pil and Kim Cheol. The demonstration for national independence in Gyeongju was ignited by the demonstration in Daegu, which took place on March 8 and March 10, and we can see the wide network of Christian churches in Gyeongju and the important role of the Christian church in the March First Independence Movement as the minister of Sawol-ri Church in Gosan-myeon brought word to start the demonstration and prepared plans.

    • March First Independence Movement in Milyang
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      March First Independence Movement in Milyang

      On March 13, 1919, the market day of Milyang, Yun Se-ju, Yun Chi-hyeong, etc. gathered many patriotic comrades with the guidance of Jeon Hong-pyo, principal of Donghwa Middle School (a private school), and held a demonstration for national independence at 1:30 pm beginning with the reading of the Declaration of Independence by Yun Se-ju. The demonstrators were dispersed temporarily by the Japanese military police and garrison urgently dispatched from Busan. The next day, however, more than 160 students of Milyang Public Primary School took to the streets all at once, and ordinary people joined the parade to hold another demonstration for national independence. Nonetheless, the Japanese police brutally suppressed the rally to disperse the crowd and arrest the leaders. Later, on April 2, more than 60 students and graduates of Milyang Public Primary School started the second worthy uprising under the direction of Yun Tae-seon. Again, the demonstrators were dispersed, and the leaders were arrested through the merciless repression by the Japanese police.
      As a result, as many as 46 leaders were arrested in the 3 instances of demonstration for national independence. As a characteristic of the demonstration for national independence in Milyang, the demonstrations were led by enlightened patriots who had maintained an anti-Japanese patriotic spirit and patriotic youths who inherited their thoughts to continue the national resistance movement to the end. Meanwhile, on April 4, the monks of Pyochungsa Temple in Danjang-myeon including Lee Jang-ok, Lee Chal-su, Oh Hak-seong, Sohn Yeong-sik, Kim Seong-heup, Gu Yeon-un, and Oh Eung-seok led a demonstration for national independence held on the market day of Danjang in Daeryong-ri. The Japanese military police arrested 364 people and prosecuted 71 leaders among them. On April 6, 500∼600 farmers demonstrated in Chunhwa-ri, Bubuk-myeon, led by Kim Eung-sam, Kim Nae-bong, Kim Seong-su, Kim Yeong-hwan, Kim Eung-jin, etc. but were forcibly dispersed by the Japanese military police. A total of 52 people were arrested, but all the masterminds left the place. Most of the farmers were released after attending reformatory lectures.

  • Jeolla-do
    • March First Independence Movement in Namwon
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      March First Independence Movement in Namwon

      On April 3, 1919, Lee Seok-gi, chief of Deokgwa-myeon, secretly met with Lee Seong-gi, his second cousin, and Jo Dong-seon, a staffer of the office of Deokgwa-myeon. That day, they planned a demonstration for national independence the following day at the planting site at Dohwagok Village in Sinyang-ri. It was Arbor Day. They distributed a letter of intent to hold a demonstration for national independence and a manifesto to the chiefs of each of the nearby Myeon regions. While drinking Makgeolli together, they encouraged the 800 people who gathered at Dohwagok Village to plant trees to hold a demonstration for national independence. The people responded favorably, and all of them had a demonstration parade while hurrahing for national independence. The Japanese military police squad commander and several armed Japanese soldiers then came from Namwon-eup and arrested several people. When Lee Seok-gi and Jo Dong-seon assumed sole responsibility, however, other people were released. The demonstration for national independence in Deokgwa-myeon galvanized all the people of Namwon-gun into action. The next day, April 4, the market day of Namwon, more than 1,000 people gathered at Gwanghallu and paraded toward the South Gate following the Taegeukgi. When they arrived at the Japanese military police substation, however, the Japanese army opened fire indiscriminately, killing 8 people on the spot, seriously injuring 10 people, and arresting 20 people. Afterward, 6 chiefs of Myeon and 7 officials in the offices of Myeon submitted their resignation.

    • March First Independence Movement in Jeonju
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      March First Independence Movement in Jeonju

      On March 1, In Jong-ik came down from Seoul and delivered more than 1,000 copies of the Declaration of Independence and told the office of Chondoism Jeonju Parish how an independence demonstration would be held. Kim Jin-ok and Bae Sang-geun, the staffers of the Chondoism Jeonju Parish, additionally made several thousands of copies of the Declaration of Independence in the office to prepare for a demonstration for national independence. The Chondoism believers including Kim Tae-gyeong, Min Yeong-jin, Seo Ho-sun, Yu Seon-tae, and Yu Won distributed the Declaration of Independence to each Myeon office, at important places, and on the streets of Jeonju. Meanwhile, the Christian circles prepared a demonstration for national independence with Sinheung School and Gijeon Girls’ School at the center. Kim Ga-jeon, Kim Jong-gon, Yun Geon-jung, Lee Su-yeon, Choi Jong-sam, etc. mobilized students, and Kim Han-soon, Park Tae-ryeon, Yu Byeong-min, Choi Jong-sam, Ham Eui-seon, etc. prepared Taegeukgi as well as the Declaration of Independence at the basement of Sinheung School with some of the students of Sinheung School and Gijeon Girls’ School.
      On March 13, 1919, the market day of Jeonju-eup, at the signal of the bell sounded from the South Gate signaling high noon, about 150 people consisting of Chondoism believers, Christians, and students of Sinheung School and Gijeon Girls’ School began the demonstration for national independence at Nammun Market holding Taegeukgi. The students of Gijeon Girls’ School handed out Taegeukgi to the merchants in the market, and students of Sinheung School and those of Jeonju Higher Primary School distributed the Declaration of Independence. The demonstrators paraded from the South Gate to the post office, passing by the Second Public Primary School and Daehwajeong. The Japanese police opened fire at the people in front of the post office. The demonstrators dispersed temporarily but gathered again at around 3 pm and paraded to the main post office. The Japanese colonial government mobilized about 50 firefighters to spray water at the crowd and injure the people with firefighting hooks. The demonstrators kept parading at night in front of the provincial government building in groups of 20~30 people, hurrahing for national independence. More than 300 demonstrators were arrested and detained that day in Jeonju-eup. On March 14, about 300 people including Park Sang-seon and Baek Nam-du hurrahed for national independence while holding Taegeukgi near Wansangyo Bridge and paraded to the main street. On March 17, the people of Songjeon-ri in Chopo-myeon held a demonstration for national independence at the field of their village. On March 23, the market day of Jeonju, thousands of people paraded on the main street near the county office, police station, and court holding Taegeukgi in their hands. The crowd was dispersed by the Japanese police, and more than 20 people were arrested. On March 24, the market day of Samlye-ri of Samlye-myeon, hundreds of people held a demonstration for national independence. On April 3, Kim Bong-geun demanded a merchant engaged in the business of fixing the national flag of Japan to retreat from the market as part of a demonstration for national independence.

    • March First Independence Movement in Jinan
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      March First Independence Movement in Jinan

      On March 6, 1919, Oh Gi-yeol and Jeon Yeong-sang, residents of Maryeong-myeon of Jinan-gun, made three manifestos related to the March First Independence Movement at the house of Lee Seong-nyeo and posted them in Jinan-myeon and Pyeongji-ri of Maryeong for a demonstration for national independence. The March First Independence Movement in Jinan began on March 25, the market day of Jinan-eup. The demonstration for national independence participated in by hundreds of people was dispersed through the suppression by the Japanese police and military police. On April 3 in Juyang-ri of Jucheon-myeon, Kim Ju-han, etc. invited Yang Hae-gwan, a student of Hwadong School (a private school), to join, and they hurrahed for the national independence of Korea at the schoolyard of Hwadong School. That night, about 60 residents and students hurrahed at the rice paddy of the village holding torches. On April 6, Kim Gu-yeong, Oh Gi-yeol, Jeon Yeong-sang, Hwang Hae-su, etc. led hundreds of residents to hurrah for national independence at the mountain of Pyeongji-ri in Maryeong-myeon. On April 12, dozens of people held a demonstration for national independence in Dotong-ri of Seongsu-myeon under the direction of Jeon Gyeong-won (or Jeon Gyeong-eon). On April 13, the market day of Maryeong, Oh Gi-yeol, Jeon Bo-ik, etc. led a demonstration at Maryeong Market (Pyeongji-ri in Maryeong-myeon; now 1264, Pyeongji-ri, Maryeong-myeon).

    • March First Independence Movement in Tae-in-myeon
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      March First Independence Movement in Tae-in-myeon

      Kim Hyeon-gon, Park Ji-seon, and Song Su-yeon, who were residents of Tae-in-myeon, went to Seoul to attend the funeral of Emperor Gojong and returned home bringing the Declaration of Independence. On March 5, they met with Kim Gu-gon, Kim Soon-gon, Kim Yong-an, Kim Jin-geun, Kim Jin-ho, Baek Bok-san, Song Deok-bong, Song Yeong-geun, Song Jin-sang, Song Han-yong, Oh Seok-hong, Yu Chi-do, and Choi Min-sik at the house of Song Su-yeon in Taeheung-ri and discussed the plan to hold a demonstration for national independence. In the process, Kim Hyeon-gon organized a secret "15-member group" and became its chairperson to lead the discussion. On March 7, Kim Dal-gon and Song Mun-sang, who had been studying in Seoul, joined them. They decided to hold a demonstration for national independence on March 16, the market day of Tae-in, at the signal of the bell sounded from the Japanese military police signaling high noon. Kim Hyeon-gon, an official of the office of Tae-in-myeon, used the mimeograph of the Myeon office to make thousands of copies of the Declaration of Independence and Taegeukgi at the house of Song Han-yong. On March 16, the market day of Tae-in, at the signal of the bell signaling high noon, several groups led by Park Ji-seon, Song Jin-sang, and Song Han-yong distributed Taegeukgi as well as the Declaration of Independence to the people who gathered in Tae-in Marketplace (Taeseong-ri, Tae-in-eup, Jeongeup-gun; now 105 Taeseong-ri, Tae-in-myeon, Jeongeup City). Five to six young leaders marched with about 200 students and graduates of primary school and young men holding Taegeukgi and hurrahing for national independence from near the Myeon office. Each of the several thousands of people in the market responded favorably to the hurrah of the demonstrators. That night, signal fires were lit on top of the mountains surrounding Tae-in-eup, and the hurrah for national independence was heard. The hurrah for national independence that night on the mountain tops and the demonstration of small groups continued for over 10 days.

    • March First Independence Movement in Imsil
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      March First Independence Movement in Imsil

      The March First Independence Movement in Imsil began in the marketplace of Imsil-eup (located in Ido-ri, Imsil-eup, Imsil-gun; now 762 Ido-ri, Imsil-eup) on March 12, the market day of Imsil-eup. More than 2,000 people gathered to hold a demonstration for national independence but were dispersed by the Japanese military police and policemen. That night, more than 1,000 people gathered again and hurrahed for national independence. On March 15, a demonstration for national independence was held in Cheong-ung-myeon. At around 9 pm, more than 100 people gathered in Gugo–ri, hurrahed for national independence, and dispersed voluntarily. Park Yong-sik, Lee Gang-se, Lee Gi-seop, Lee Seong-eui, Choi Jong-su, Han Gi-su, Han Do-su, etc. hurrahed for national independence in Gugo–ri, with about 150 people hurrahing for national independence in Namsan-ri from March 7 to March 16. About 100 people hurrahed for national independence in Seokdu-ri and Okjeon-ri. On March 21, 15 residents of Gugo–ri and Namsan-ri demonstrated at the Imsil Police Station demanding the release of those who were jailed. On March 20 and March 21, Kim Yeong-pil, Choi Gi-hyeon, Choi Sang-hak, Choi Yeong-yeol, and Han In-seok asserted the legitimacy of the demonstration for national independence before a crowd of more than 50 people in Banggye-ri, Jisa-myeon and paraded while hurrahing for the independence of the Korean Empire. On March 23, the market day of Galdam, hundreds of people led by Eom Gil-yeong and Lee Jung-hyeok held a demonstration for national independence in Galdam-ri of Gangjin-myeon. On April 6, Na Hak-yong, Han Jeong-gyo, etc., who were residents of Sindeok-myeon, held a demonstration for national independence in Samgil-ri and Sinheung-ri. On April 7, Kim Je-ryong, Mun Seong-sul, Song Gwi-nam Song Seong-hak, Choi Geuk-sam, etc. held a demonstration for national independence at the mountain in Obong-ri, Seongsu-myeon. On April 12, Kim Yeong-won received 20 copies of the Declaration of Independence from Chondoism evangelist Han Jun-seok in the Chondoism Parish in Jicheon-ri, Unam-myeon and posted them in Seongeo-ri, Ipseok-ri, and Hansak-ri. He was arrested by the Japanese police while asserting the legitimacy of the demonstration for national independence.

    • March First Independence Movement in Dunnam-myeon, Imsil-gun
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      March First Independence Movement in Dunnam-myeon, Imsil-gun

      On March 10, 1919, at about 10 am, the students of Osu Public Primary School (located in Osu-ri, Dunnam-myeon, Imsil-gun; now 400 Osu-ri, Osu-myeon, Imsil-gun) gathered at the schoolyard after the first class and marched out to the street led by Lee Gwang-su, a teacher of the school. Surprised, the Japanese principal appealed to the students and their parents together with other teachers, and the demonstration for national independence was soon quelled. Though the demonstration for national independence at Osu Public Primary School was a small-scale demonstration held by young students, it was the first March First Independence Movement in the Imsil region. On March 23, the market day of Osu, the second demonstration for national independence took place at Osu-eup Marketplace (located in Osu-ri, Dunnam-myeon, Imsil-gun; now 325 Osu-ri, Osu-myeon). The masterminds of the demonstration for national independence that day were local leaders Oh Byeong-yong, Lee Gi-song, and Lee Man-eui. They communicated with the Chondoism believers and Christians to prepare the demonstration for national independence. The number of demonstrators kept increasing, reaching as many as 2,000. They trashed the Japanese stores in the market and went to the Dunnam-myeon office to urge the chief of Dunnam-myeon and other officials to join the demonstration as Koreans at heart. That evening, the armed forces dispatched from the Japanese military police in Namwon and Imsil police station opened fire. The demonstrators dispersed temporarily but kept demonstrating in groups of 300~400 people until daybreak the next day.

    • March First Independence Movement in Gwangju
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      March First Independence Movement in Gwangju

      In mid-February 1919, Jeong Gwang-ho, a Korean student studying in Tokyo, delivered the “Feb. 8 Declaration” written in the name of "Joseon Youth Independence Group" to the young men in Gwangju. Kim Chul (real name: Kim Bok-hyeon), a Christian living in Gwangju, communicated with the Christians in Seoul regarding the demonstration for national independence. In the evening of March 5, Kang Seok-bong, Kim Gang (a teacher at Sung-il School), Kim Yong-gyu, Seo Jeong-hee, Choi Byeong-jun, Choi Yeong-gyun, Choi Han-yeong, Han Gil-sang, Hwang Sang-ho, etc. met at the house of Namgung Hyeok in Yanglim-dong and planned the holding of a demonstration for national independence on March 8, the day of the big market. Due to insufficient preparation, however, the date of the demonstration was postponed to March 10. The March First Independence Movement in Gwangju began on March 10, 1919 at the small marketplace under Budonggyo Bridge (located in Budongjeong, Gwangju-myeon, Gwangju-gun; now 174 Bullo-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju Metropolitan City) with about 1,000 participants. Christians and students of Sungil School and Speer Girls’ School came down from the Yangju-dong area along Gwangju Stream, and students of Gwangju Public Agricultural School and citizens gathered from Bukmuntong, North Gate Town.
      Hundreds of farmers came from the Jisan-myeon region. The students of Sungil School and Speer Girls’ School distributed Taegeukgi as well as the Declaration of Independence to the demonstrators, and the masterminds of the demonstration for national independence led the crowd holding a large Taegeukgi. Passing by Seomuntong (West Gate Town) and Gwangju District Court (located at 14 Bukseongjeong, Gwangju-myeon, Gwangju-gun; now 1-11 Geumnam-ro 3-ga, Dong-gu, Gwangju Metropolitan City), the demonstrators gathered in front of Gwangju Police Station (located in Seong-an, Seongnae-myeon, Gwangju-gun; now Chungjang Bookstore at 35 Geumnam-ro 2-ga, Dong-gu, Gwangju Metropolitan City). When the demonstrators reached the post office, the armed mounted Japanese military police arrested more than 100 people. The next day, March 11, students of Sungil School and Gwangju Agriculture School led a demonstration and paraded together with more than 300 monks while hurrahing for national independence. On March 13, the day of the big market in Gwangju-eup, more than 1,000 people hurrahed and some of them had a parade. On March 16, primary school students and citizens hurrahed while holding Taegeukgi at a station square in Songjeong-ri of Songjeong-myeon. Meanwhile, Hwang Sang-ho, a Christian and accountant at Jejung Hospital (now Gwangju Christian Hospital), published the “Joseon Independence Gwangju Newspaper” in the basement of Jejung Hospital using a mimeograph and distributed it to spread the news of the independence movement. The 300 copies of the first issue of the newspaper were produced on March 13, 1919. The newspaper was published until its fourth issue before it was discovered by the Japanese police.

  • Hamgyeong-do
    • March First Independence Movement in Myongcheon
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      March First Independence Movement in Myongcheon

      The first demonstration in Myeongcheon was held in Hwadae-dong of Haga-myeon on March 14. It is not known who led the demonstration, but all the people knew that the hurrah demonstration was to be held that day. At 11 am, 5,000 people took to the streets to have a demonstration. When the demonstrators arrived at the military police substation, the military police opened fire, killing 5 people instantly. The people of Haga-myeon got furious at the news, and more than 1,000 villagers gathered at Hwadae Market the next day, March 15, to hold an independence demonstration. The demonstrators led by Haga-myeon went to the military police substation. The military police opened fire and killed 4 people instantly. A teenager named Dong Pung-shin ran out to the site of demonstration upon hearing that her father was killed in the demonstration and led the independence demonstration. Arrested by the police, she later died in Seodaemun Prison in 1921 at age 17. On March 16, more than 400 people held a demonstration at Agan-myeon Market. The military police arrived at the scene, broke up the demonstrators, and closed the market. On March 17, the students of Bochon School and the villagers of Jungpyeong-dong held a demonstration in Bochon-dong of Sanggo-myeon. On March 18, more than 700 people hurrahed and marched at a cow market. Two persons died instantly when the military police opened fire. On March 22, 40 people hurrahed while waving Taegeukgi at Seonjigok Village of Unmandae. The demonstration continued in April. On April 8, a teacher led a demonstration for national independence in Udong Private School located in Udong-dong, Seo-myeon. On April 14, more than 200 people hurrahed for national independence in Myeongnam-dong, Seo-meyon. On April 18, more than 300 people had a parade for national independence in Hajang-dong Market in Sangwoon Buk-myeon.

    • March First Independence Movement in Seongjin
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      March First Independence Movement in Seongjin

      The March First Independence Movement in Seongjin began on March 19 in Seongjin-myeon. The demonstration was prepared by the Christians of Ukjeong Church, which was being operated by Rev. Robert Grierson. The masterminds of the demonstration including Kang Hak-rin, Ahn Seong-yun, Lee Hyo-geun, Seo Yu-jin, and Bae Min-su printed 30,000 copies of the Declaration of Independence and manifesto on March 7 in the rectory of Rev. Grierson. On March 10, at around 10 am, more than 5,000 people gathered in front of Jedong Hospital run by Rev. Grierson. The demonstrators marched downtown hurrahing for national independence. The demonstration continued in the afternoon. The more than 40 students of Christian Bosin School held a demonstration for national independence in front of Japanese shops, police station, and post office. More than 200 Christians followed the student demonstrators. In the evening, at around 11 pm, two teachers of Bosin School led a demonstration of Christians in Nongjang-dong, Imyeong-myeon. The next day, March 11, at 10 am, more than 700 Christians held a demonstration in front of Jedong Hospital. While the demonstrators paraded in town, the police opened fire and killed one person on the spot. The students of Bosin School took to the streets again. Upon hearing the news of the demonstration in Seongjin-myeon, the villagers of Hakdong-myeon held a demonstration, too. The demonstration in Hakdong-myeon lasted for 4 days. On March 12 and March 13, the members of the Huh family in Hakdong-myeon went about many villages hurrahing for national independence. On March 14, more than 200 villagers of Hacheon-dong sounded bells and beat drums at the mountain, holding a demonstration for national independence. In Hakseong-myeon, more than 250 people hurrahed at the mountain waving Taegeukgi on March 12.

    • March First Independence Movement in Wonsan
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      March First Independence Movement in Wonsan

      Located in Hamgyeongnam-do Province, Wonsan was a representative trade port opened by the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876. It was Rev. Jeong Chun-su of the South Methodist Episcopal Church, one of the national representatives, who prepared the demonstration for national independence on March 1 in Wonsan. Upon hearing the news of the plan for the ceremony for the declaration of national independence delivered from Seoul by Lee Gap-seong and Oh Hwa-yeong, who were also national representatives, Rev. Jeong Chun-su began to prepare a joint demonstration with the Presbyterian Church. He called in Lee Ga-soon, an evangelist of the Presbyterian Church, and Kwak Myeong-ri, an evangelist of the Methodist Church, and told them the news of the impending independence movement in Seoul. Lee Ga-soon promptly made a declaration of independence together with Lee Soon-yeong, an evangelist of the Presbyterian Church, in case the Declaration of Independence does not arrive in time from Seoul. The next day, Rev. Jeong Chun-su dispatched Kwak Myeong-ri to Seoul to collect more detailed information. Kwak Myeong-ri met with Oh Hwa-yeong, a national representative, in Seoul and received 100 copies of the Declaration of Independence through the arrangement of Kim Chang-jun, who was also a national representative. Kwak Myeong-ri returned to Wonsan in the afternoon of Feb. 28. Rev. Jeong Chun-su immediately called in 11 leaders of the Presbyterian Church and the Methodist Church. At the meeting, they decided to carry out a demonstration for national independence on March 1 in concert with the demonstration in Seoul. They immediately began the preparations and divided Wonsan into several regions so that the 13 masterminds could lead the demonstrators in each region while hurrahing for national independence. They also made Taegeukgi all night long.
      Incidentally, March 1 was the market day of Wonsan. In the morning, Rev. Jeong Chun-su left for Seoul to participate in the ceremony for the declaration of national independence by the national representatives. Lee Ga-soon sent 50 of the 100 copies of the Declaration of Independence brought by Kwak Myeong-ri to the government agencies in Hamgyeongnam-do Province. Lee Soon-yeong gave the Declaration of Independence brought from Seoul as well as the declaration of independence they produced themselves to the students of Gwangmyeong School of the Methodist Church, asking them to distribute them. At the signal of the bell sounded at 1:30 pm, the students of Gwangmyeong School and Baeseong School of the Presbyterian Church went out of the school gate and headed for Sang Market to participate in the ceremony for the declaration of national independence. Four students of Baeseong School distributed hundreds of copies of the declaration of independence on the street at the instruction of Cha Gwang-eun, who was a leader in the Presbyterian Church. At 2 pm, the 13 masterminds read the Declaration of Independence at the designated places, and the demonstrators marched while hurrahing for national independence. The students led the demonstrators beating drums and blowing horns.
      At 4 pm, more than 1,000 demonstrators marched toward the Japanese town following a band under the direction of Kwak Myeong-ri and Lee Ga-soon who were riding on rickshaws. When the demonstrators hurrahing for national independence reached the front of Wonsan Police Station, the police, the military police, and even the firefighters sprayed colored water to disperse the crowd. The demonstrators repeatedly got dispersed but gathered anew and kept marching forward. The military police and policemen then fired blanks. The demonstrators dispersed temporarily but held a demonstration again in front of Wonsan Station until 6 pm. A total of 93 people were arrested. The military police and the police continued to search for the masterminds with the intention of arresting them.
      The March 1 demonstration in Wonsan was planned by Rev. Jeong Chun-su who was one of the national representatives. Therefore, the demonstration for national independence was prepared by communicating directly with Seoul, and the Declaration of Independence was delivered directly from Seoul in large quantities. The demonstration was also prepared based on the solidarity in the Christian world between the Presbyterian Church and the Methodist Church. The students of Christian schools joined, too. What is notable is that they prepared the declaration of independence by themselves in case the Declaration of Independence did not arrive in time.

    • March First Independence Movement in Chunyu-myeon, Jeongpyeong-gun
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      March First Independence Movement in Chunyu-myeon, Jeongpyeong-gun

      The March First Independence Movement in Chunyu-myeon, Jeongpyeong-gun, took place on March 13, the market day of Sinha-ri. Upon hearing the news of the demonstrations for national independence in Jeongpyeong-myeon and Jui-myeon, Han Jang-beon gathered several comrades to plan for a demonstration. The demonstration for national independence began at 1 pm with the three cheers of Han Jang-beon, and the demonstrators marched toward Sinsang-ri and Sinpo-ri, increasing the number of demonstrators to more than 4,000. The demonstrators dispersed voluntarily at 6 pm, but another demonstration was held late at night in Sinsang-ri and Sinpo-ri. In Sinha-ri, more than 1,500 people gathered at the Christian church at around 9:30 pm and held a demonstration for national independence and paraded. After 10 pm, the number of demonstrators exceeded 5,000. In Sinsang-ri, hundreds of people launched a surprise attack on the military police substation late at night. The military police opened fire, killing and injuring 10 people. The demonstration for national independence that night ended at 3 am.

    • March First Independence Movement in Nodeok-myeon, Bukcheong-gun
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      March First Independence Movement in Nodeok-myeon, Bukcheong-gun

      The first demonstration for national independence in Nodeok-myeon, Bukcheonggun, took place on March 8. At 9 am, about 250 Chondoism believers and students paraded in town following a big Taegeukgi and went to Mt. Yeongdeoksan and hurrahed. On March 10 at noon, a demonstration for national independence was held under the direction of Jo Seok-won, Lee Uk-seong, Lee Gi-ju, etc. Around that time, Kim Tae-jong, chief of Bukcheong Parish of Chondoism, and other Chondoism leaders were plotting an organized demonstration. On March 8, they brought the Declaration of Independence from Seoul and prepared a demonstration on March 11, which was a market day. On March 10, the day before the planned demonstration, however, the Japanese police raided the Chondoism temple and arrested the masterminds of the demonstration including Kim Tae-jong. On March 11, more than 600 Chondoism believers held a demonstration without the masterminds or leaders. Upon hearing that the Chondoism believers living in other Myeon regions were going to participate in the demonstration, the police blocked the roads leading to the seat of the Myeon office. On March 12 and March 13, several Christians who were plotting the demonstration and distributing a manifesto were discovered. On March 14, more than 100 Chondoism believers held a demonstration for national independence.

  • Hwanghae-do
    • March First Independence Movement in Anak
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      March First Independence Movement in Anak

      Anak-gun had suffered from much sacrifice and difficulty in the Anak Worthy Uprising and the "105 People Incident" as the birthplace of the national campaign and new culture movement. Due to the tight surveillance by the Japanese police, the people of Anak-gun could not even conceive the idea of rising against the Japanese colonial rule even when demonstrations for national independence were being held actively in Seoul and other regions of the province. Then one day, a demonstration for national independence began in Onjeong-ri of Eunhong-myeon. The demonstration was held on March 11 under the direction of Park Chi-gan, Jeong Gye-ro, Yu Yong-won, etc. who went to Seoul to pay their respects at the funeral of Emperor Gojong and returned after witnessing the demonstration for national independence in Seoul on March 1. Hundreds of people who came from Eunhong-myeon, Daehaeng-myeon, and Seoha-myeon marched following a large flag reading "The Independence of Korea" after listening to the Declaration of Independence being read by Park Chi-gan. Nonetheless, three people were killed on the spot when the Japanese military police opened fire indiscriminately. Many others were injured, and the masterminds were arrested and detained. On March 28 in Anak-eup, a demonstration for national independence was held mainly by Christians but was dispersed forcibly with the arrest and detention of 25 people.

    • March First Independence Movement in Haeju
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      March First Independence Movement in Haeju

      In Haeju, 300 copies of the Declaration of Independence sent by Park Hee-do and Choi Seong-mo in Seoul had already been delivered by Kim Myeong-shin on Feb. 20 together with a letter by Choi Seong-mo to Rev. Oh Hyeon-gyeong of the Christian Church in Nambonjeong of Haeju-eup. Rev. Oh Hyeon-gyeong met with Hwang Hak-so, Lim Yong-ha, Lee Dong-hyeok, Choi Myeong-hyeon, Kim Chang-hyeok, etc. that night to plan for a demonstration for national independence and at the same time secretly notified each believer of the plan. In the afternoon of March 1 at around 2 pm, more than 180 Christians gathered at the Christian Church in Nambonjeong and held a ceremony for the declaration of national independence under the chairmanship of Rev. Oh Hyeon-gyeong. Afterward, the Christians including Bong Yeong-hwa planned to hold a large-scale demonstration for national independence on March 9 at Namukjeong Marketplace in Haeju-eup but were foiled since the information was leaked before they could do so. Nonetheless, hundreds of Chondoism believers in Ongjin-gun entered the town of Haeju-eup on March 10 holding a big flag reading "Hurrah for the National Independence of Korea" and held a demonstration for national independence. Then the Christians who could not hold the demonstration the day before and the residents of Haeju-eup including Lee Seong-ryong joined the crowd as if they had been waiting for the event. All the main streets of Haeju-eup were crowded with numerous demonstrators. The demonstration ended with the arrest of 70 people by the mounted Japanese military police.
      Meanwhile, a group of geishas in Haeju-eup paraded in the demonstration for national independence on April 1 holding the Taegeukgi they drew with blood by biting their fingers. The worthy uprising of the women inspired the people even more, and many people in all directions responded favorably. The number of demonstrators exceeded 3,000 people. In addition, Choi Bo-eun led a demonstration for national independence on March 9 in Seokdong-myeon, and more than 600 people held a demonstration for national independence in Seobyeon-myeon on March 10 and at Cheongdan Marketplace in Chuhwa-myeon on March 12. On March 17, more than 200 people held a demonstration for national independence in Yeongyang-ri of Cheongryong-myeon under the direction of Lee Gi-bong. Additional demonstrations were held at Chwiya-ri Marketplace in Gajwa-myeon and Munjeong-ri of Seobyeon-myeon on April 3, in Jukcheon-ri of Janggok-myeon on April 6, in Samjeong-ri of Dongwoon-myeon on April 7, and in Baekjeong-ri of Unsan-myeon on April 8.

    • March First Independence Movement in Suan
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      March First Independence Movement in Suan

      The first demonstration in Suan-gun for the March First Independence Movement took place on March 3 in Eupnae-myeon. Ahn Bong-ha, chief of the Suan Parish of Chondoism, received the Declaration of Independence sent from Seoul on March 1 and began to prepare a demonstration immediately. On March 2, Sunday, the Chondoism believers attending the service of Chondoism were told about the plan for the demonstration scheduled to be held the next day. Nonetheless, the information was leaked out, and the Japanese military police took the masterminds to the station. On March 3, the Chondoism leaders who had evaded arrest led more than 130 believers and began parading in town hurrahing for national independence. Then the Chondoism believers from different Myeon regions joined the parade. The demonstrators rushed to the military police substation and demanded the release of the masterminds who were in jail. In response, the Japanese military police opened fire, killing 9 people on the spot. On March 7, the market day of Hol-dong, more than 100 people in Seokdal-ri of Sugu–myeon led by Lee Seung-pil, a Chondoism evangelist, held a demonstration in front of the military police substation demanding its demolition. On March 9, about 150 people held a demonstration at the military police substation in Seokdal-ri. The demonstration for national independence was held again on March 7 and March 10 by the teachers and students of Gyeongsin School in Eunyul-ri of Yeonam-myeon. The demonstration for national independence also took place in Dudae-dong of Cheongok-myeon on March 10 and March 18. The March First Independence Movement in Suan-gun was led by Chondoism leaders, and demonstrations were held in many different regions including Eupnae-myeon, Seokdal-ri of Sugu–myeon, Eunyul-ri of Yeonam-myeon, and Dudae-dong of Cheongok-myeon. In particular, the demonstration that took place in Eupnae-myeon on March 3 was the fiercest resistance in Hwanghae-do Province, producing the most martyrs.

    • March First Independence Movement in Yeonbaek
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      March First Independence Movement in Yeonbaek

      The demonstration in Yeonan-myeon was led by the Christian Church. Upon receiving about 100 copies of the Declaration of Independence from Seoul, Rev. Sohn Chang-hyeon began to prepare a demonstration. Each Myeon was to march toward Yeonan-myeon on different dates. The dates for the demonstrations for national independence were decided in order of Bongbuk-myeon, Hodong-myeon, Honam-myeon, and Hyeseong-myeon. Even though the police found out about the distribution of the Declaration of Independence on March 2, the demonstration proceeded as planned. On March 15, the demonstrators from Bongbuk-myeon marched first toward Yeonan-myeon. On March 16, the demonstrators from Hodong-myeon marched toward the south gate of Yeonan-myeon. They managed to arrive in town despite attempts by the Japanese military police to block them. On March 18, the market day, the demonstrators from Honam-myeon and Hyeseong-myeon marched toward the west gate of Yeonan-myeon. The officials of the Hyeseong-myeon office and village heads joined the group, too. The number of demonstrators who gathered at the marketplace that day exceeded 2,000. On March 21, more than 200 people held a demonstration for national independence in Yeonan-myeon. On March 23, a teacher of a Christian school and the village head led a demonstration for national independence in Baeklan-ri of Haewol-myeon. That same day, a teacher and the students of a Christian school led a demonstration for national independence in Byeongnando with about 1,000 participants. On March 24, the villagers of Geumgok-ri in Yugok-myeon hurrahed for national independence while waving Taegeukgi. On March 30, a demonstration for national independence took place at Yeonnam-ri Marketplace in Baecheon-myeon under the direction of Song Heung-guk and Lee Jeong-sik who were teachers of Changdong School. With the number of demonstrators exceeding 1,000, the police opened fire and forcibly dispersed the crowd. The next day, March 31, a demonstration for national independence took place at Honghyeon Market in Yeongseong-ri of Yugok-myeon. In Unsan-myeon, an official of the Unsan-myeon office led a demonstration. The people in Oksan-ri of Euncheon-myeon attempted to raid the military police substation.

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      March First Independence Movement in Jaeryeong

      The first demonstration of the March First Independence Movement in Jaeryeong took place on March 6 in Haechang-ri, Namryul-myeon at the instigation of Christians. Yun Taek-jin, who hailed from Haechang-ri, was attending Osan School. He returned home and prepared the demonstration. Communicating with the Christians in Haechang-ri, Yun Taek-jin drew hundreds of Taegeukgi in his home. Since one of his comrades was suddenly arrested, he decided to hold the demonstration earlier on the night of March 6. At one point, the demonstrators seized the military police substation and the office of Namryul-myeon. In Jaeryeong-myeon, a demonstration for national independence took place on March 9, a Sunday and also a market day. They had prepared the demonstration for 6 days as the Declaration of Independence was delivered to Jaeryeong-myeon on March 3. More than 500 Christians and Chondoism believers held a demonstration for national independence on March 9 at around 3:30 pm. While parading, the size of the crowd increased to more than 2,000. On March 10, the market day of Naejong-ri in Bukryul-myeon, a demonstration for national independence led by Christians took place. When the more than 1,000 demonstrators rushed to the military police substation, the military police opened fire and killed one person on the spot. On March 28, a demonstration for national independence was held in Cheongseokdu-ri of Sangseong-myeon under the direction of teachers. Demonstrations continued in many places in April. On April 2, the students of Myeongsin School and Public Primary School held a demonstration. On April 4, a demonstration took place in Haechang-ri of Namryulmyeon. Additional demonstrations for national independence took place in Sindeok-ri of Haseong-myeon on April 5, Jaeryeong-myeon and Sinhwanpo-ri of Seoho-myeon on April 7, and Sinyu-ri of Eunryong-myeon on April 9.

    • March First Independence Movement in Jangyeon
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      March First Independence Movement in Jangyeon

      The first demonstration in Jangyeon-myeon took place on March 11, the market day of Jangyeon-myeon. At 1 pm, a demonstration for national independence began at the instigation of Chondoism believers including Yeo Hyeon-gu and Kang Ye-bong. When the police arrested the masterminds, more than 200 demonstrators rushed to the police station and demanded their release. The police shut down the market and cracked down on the demonstrators by looking through inns. The demonstration in Jangyeon-myeon took place again on March 16, the next market day, with more than 300 people participating. A demonstration for national independence took place once more on April 11. More than 1,000 people participated in the demonstration, which took place in Sangtaetan-ri of Sokdal-myeon on April 5. Students of primary school as well as the female students who returned home due to the infinite closing of schools participated in the demonstration, too. Demonstrations for national independence took place in Namho-ri of Hunam-myeon on April 8 and April 11. More than 1,200 people participated in the demonstration, which took place on April 11, the market day of Namchang in Namho-ri. The demonstrators broke the door of the Myeon office and beat up an official. Demonstrations continued in Dogyeong-ri of Yongyeon-myeon on April 16, Songcheon-ri of Daegu-myeon on April 18, and Monggeumpo-ri of Hae-an-myeon on April 22. During the demonstration in Monggeumpo-ri, more than 100 people hurrahed for national independence but were dispersed when the police fired some shots.

  • Pyeongan-do
    • March First Independence Movement in Ganggye
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      March First Independence Movement in Ganggye

      The first demonstration of the March First Independence Movement in Ganggye-gun, Pyeonganbuk-do began with the distribution of the Declaration of Independence with hurrahing by hundreds of Chondoism believers on March 3 in Ipgwan-myeon. In the demonstration for national independence that day, the Japanese military police arrested 20 demonstrators and dispersed the crowd. Nonetheless, the demonstration did not stop but was resumed by Kim Gyeong-ha and Jeong Jun, teachers of Yeongsil Middle School, and Han Bong-min, accountant of Myeongsin School, who made Taegeukgi as well as the Declaration of Independence with the help of the managers of Chondoism and students of Yeongsil Middle School to prepare the next demonstration. On April 8, at the signal of the bell sounded at Namjangdae Church, thousands of people held a demonstration for national independence while distributing the Declaration of Independence and Taegeukgi. The mounted Japanese military police came and fired indiscriminately at the demonstrators, killing 4 on the spot and injuring many. Among the arrested, 29 people were sent to Sineuiju Prison. On April 16, thousands of people held a demonstration for national independence in Pungryong-ri of Eoroe-myeon. The Japanese military police killed 10 people on the spot and arrested 20. Since the Korean army for national independence penetrating into Korea from Manchuria and the fighters for national independence seeking refuge abroad went through Ganggye frequently before and after crossing Amnokgang River, Ganggye was policed by the Japanese colonial government like a district under martial law during a war. Even in such difficult situation, however, the army for national independence raided the office of Jongnam-myeon on October 24 and burned down the Japanese military substation and 20 guard posts along Amnokgang River.

    • March First Independence Movement in Gangseo
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      March First Independence Movement in Gangseo

      The March First Independence Movement in Gangseo-gun was led by Christian leaders including Choi Seung-taek, Park Sang-hyeon, Park Eui-hyeon, and Hong Seok-chan and Chondoism leaders including Lee Jin-sik, Kim Byeong-ju, Hwang Jae-ho, Byeong Gyeong-sik, and Song Hyeon-geon who organized a demonstration participated in by more than 4,000 people on March 3, a market day. At around 10 am, the people began a demonstration for national independence after the reading of the Declaration of Independence and three cheers for national independence. Note, however, that the Japanese military police, police, and soldiers fired at the crowd, killing 9 and injuring 4. Dozens of people were also arrested. Meanwhile, on March 2 in Jeungsan-myeon, villagers from Yongdeok-ri, Oheung-ri, Duman-ri, etc. gathered at Jipryong-ri Church and hurrahed for national independence after holding a service. On March 4, more than 500 people including Christians held a ceremony for the declaration of national independence and began a demonstration. When the Japanese military police tried to disperse them, the demonstrators trashed the military police substation, killed one military policeman and three military police assistants, and burned their living quarters. On March 4 at Sacheon Marketplace in Banseok-myeon, demonstrators threw stones in response to the shots fired by the Japanese military police who killed 13 people and injured more than 40. In Hamjong, more than 2,000 people held a demonstration for national independence on March 8 under the direction of Kang Gi-pal, Kim Yong-su, Lee Neung-hun, Oh Yeongseon, etc. After holding a ceremony for the declaration of national independence, the leaders asked the demonstrators to refrain from violence during the demonstration parade and expressed such intention to the chief of the Japanese military police substation who was watching the scene, asking him not to intervene in the demonstration by force of arms. When the peaceful demonstration for national independence was about to finish, however, the military police opened fire and killed 1, severely injured another, and arrest 40 people.

    • March First Independence Movement in Gwaksan
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      March First Independence Movement in Gwaksan

      After participating in a secret meeting of Chondoism officials in Jeongju-eup with Kim Jin-pal presiding, Kim Gyeong-ham, the chief of Gwaksan Parish of Chondoism at the time, prepared a demonstration for national independence together with the staff of Yeongchang School. The demonstration was held on March 3. That day, the Chondoism believers distributed the Declaration of Independence at the station and the villages near the station. The Christian circles went door to door handing out Taegeukgi. More than 1,000 people gathered in the town of Jeongju-eup. Kim Gyeong-ham delivered a speech about the legitimacy of the national independence of Korea, and the crowd paraded in town hurrahing for national independence.

    • March First Independence Movement in Maengsan
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      March First Independence Movement in Maengsan

      The March First Independence Movement in Maengsan began with the delivery of the Declaration of Independence by Hyeon Seong-jae, a missionary of Deokcheon Parish of Chondoism, on March 6, 1919. The demonstration was led by Mun Byeong-ro, chief of Maengsan Parish of Chondoism, and many leaders of Chondoism including Kim Eung-cheol, Bang Gi-chang, Jeong Deok-hwa, Kim Chi-song, Lee Gwan-guk, and Bang Jin-won. In a demonstration for national independence, more than 50 Chondoism believers marched on the street distributing the Declaration of Independence. They were forcibly dispersed by the Japanese military police. From that day, however, many demonstrations for national independence took place sporadically in many areas in the county. Later, on March 10, the Japanese colonial authorities arrested one Chondoism believer and brutally tortured him for being the mastermind in the demonstration for national independence. Furious, 53 people rushed to the military police substation and demanded his release. The Japanese military police told all the 53 people including Park Nae-jun and Bang Yun-gyeok to come into the yard and locked the gate. They then made the people line up on one side and fatally shot them one by one. As a result, 50 people were killed on the spot, and only 3 survived the brutality. Nonetheless, the people of Maengsan remained defiant and continued to hold demonstrations for national independence day after day. Numerous people were killed and injured by the brutal use of armed force by the Japanese colonial government.

    • March First Independence Movement in Byeokdong
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      March First Independence Movement in Byeokdong

      Byeokdong-eup had maintained direct contact with Lee Seung-hoon even before the March First Independence Movement. When the plan for the demonstration for national independence was ripening in Seoul, Lee Seung-hoon dispatched Rev. Song Mun-jeong of Wolhwa-myeon Church in Euiju-gun to Byeokdong to involve the people in mountainous areas in the national independence movement. The Declaration of Independence was also delivered to Chondoism believers from Euiju by Choi Seok-ryeon. On March 10, hundreds of Chondoism believers went out to the street distributing the Declaration of Independence after holding a ceremony for the anniversary of the demise of the founder of Chondoism at Byeokdong Parish of Chondoism. The residents and Christians joined the demonstration for national independence, had a parade, and dispersed voluntarily. On March 30, more than 200 people held a demonstration but were dispersed by Japanese soldiers. In the morning and afternoon of March 31, 300 people consisting mainly of Chondoism believers paraded while hurrahing for national independence but were dispersed again by Japanese soldiers. In the evening of April 1 at around 11 pm, more than 1,000 demonstrators gathered in the town of Byeokdong-eup from every direction at the signal of the firecrackers set off by the Chondoism believers. The Japanese garrison and military police came and opened fire, killing 12 people on the spot and detaining 25.

    • March First Independence Movement in Sacheon
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      March First Independence Movement in Sacheon

      Located on the border of Gangseo-gun and Daedong-gun, Morakjang was busy on market days with frequent comings and goings of people. There were Presbyterian churches in both places. Jo Jin-tak was an elder of Banseok Church in Banseok-myeon, which was located at a halfway point between Wonjang-ri and Morakjang. On March 1, 1919, Jo Jin-tak personally participated in the March First Independence Movement in Pyongyang and returned with several copies of the Declaration of Independence. On his way home, he dropped by Wonjang-ri and met with the church leaders including Yun Sang-yeol, Koh Ji-hyeong, and Cha Hyeon-gu. They agreed to hold a demonstration for national independence on March 4, the market day of Wonjang-ri, through the joint efforts of Banseok Church and Wonjang Church. Meanwhile, Choi Neung-hyeon, an elder of Banseok Church, delivered the news to Rev. Song Hyeon-geun of Morakjang Church. Upon hearing the news, Rev. Song Hyeon-geun summoned the leaders of the church to the house of Kim Hae-jin and prepared for the worthy uprising. The gathering was discovered by a military police assistant, however. More than 10 people including Kim Hae-jin were arrested, and Rev. Song Hyeon-geun escaped to the house of Jo Jin-tak of Banseok Church. The demonstration for national independence in Wonjang-ri was held as planned on March 4 at 10 am. At the demonstration, Choi Neung-hyeon and Song Hyeon-geun said that the demonstration in Morakjang had been thwarted and appealed to the people to rescue their comrades detained in the jail of the military police. Upon hearing that, the crowd paraded toward Sangsa-ri of Banseok-myeon. While they were going over the hill near Morakjang, however, the military police ambushed them, and many young men in the front fell down when the police opened fire. As many as 13 people were killed, with 40 injured. Furious, the crowd fought the Japanese soldiers with stones and bare hands. Morakjang suddenly became a battlefield. The demonstrators ran after Sato, the chief of the military police substation, and 2 military police assistants but set his wife and child free. The wife of Sato immediately reported the incident in Sacheon to the headquarters of the Pyeongyang military police stationed in Gangseo. The Japanese military police promptly went to the site and arrested 400 people. After 20 days of interrogation and torture, they sent 49 people to the prosecutor’s office in Pyeongyang. The March First Independence Movement in the region was one of the well-known bloody incidents together with the tragedy in Jeam-ri, Hyangnam-myeon, Suwon-gun, and Gyeonggi–do.

    • March First Independence Movement in Sakju
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      March First Independence Movement in Sakju

      Before the March First Independence Movement took place, Lee Seung-hoon secretly dispatched Rev. Song Mun-jeong of Wolhwa-myeon Church in Euiju-gun to Sakju for advance discussion about holding a demonstration for national independence to involve the people in mountainous areas in the national uprising. Meanwhile, the Declaration of Independence was also delivered to Chondoism believers on March 1 from Euiju by Choi Seok-ryeon. Jang Dae-gil, a Chondoism believer, copied the Declaration of Independence and delivered it to each Myeon and planned a hurrah for national independence in every Myeon on March 5 at 2 pm. That same day, at 2 pm, more than 3,000 Christians, Chondoism believers, and residents held a demonstration for national independence in Sakju-eup, too. The Japanese military police killed 4 people on the spot and arrested more than 20. On March 9, more than 50 Christians held a demonstration for national independence in Sakju-eup. On March 31 and again on April 1, thousands of people surrounded the military police substation and held a fierce demonstration for national independence, breaking windows. With thousands of people continuing to hold fierce demonstrations for national independence from March 31 in Daegwan-ri, Oenam-myeon in Sakju-gu, the Japanese army dispatched 5 more military policemen from Sakju-eup on April 5. On April 6, when the 200 death-defying corps out of the 6,000∼7,000 people led the demonstration while fighting against the blocking Japanese army, the Japanese army opened fire indiscriminately. As a result, 6 people died on the spot, and 40 were arrested. At daybreak on April 11, a fire broke out at a Christian church in Sakju-eup, and the whole church building was burned down. Similar to the one that took place in Jeongju, it was the retaliation of the Japanese colonial government for the demonstration for national independence led by Christians.

    • March First Independence Movement in Seongcheon
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      March First Independence Movement in Seongcheon

      Seongcheon-gun had been a strategic military point. After the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910, Chondoism expanded its congregation in Seongcheon-gun and played a leading role in the March First Independence Movement in the region. The demonstration for national independence in Seongcheon-gun was planned by Lee Don-ha, chief of the Seongcheon Parish of Chondoism who hailed from Sangpyeong-ri of Ssangryong-myeon. He went to Pyeongyang to participate in the meeting of Chondoism parish heads held late February 1919 and hurriedly returned on Feb. 28 bringing the Declaration of Independence delivered from Seoul. Lee Don-ha immediately met with the regional leaders of Chondoism to plan for a worthy uprising. On March 4 at 11 am, a demonstration for national independence was held in front of the Chondoism temple in Seongcheon-eup. More than 4,000 people consisting mainly of men and women Chondoism believers gathered for the demonstration. Unafraid of death, they brought their personal seals to enable checking their identity if they die in the worthy uprising. After the reading of the Declaration of Independence, the demonstrators gave three cheers for national independence at exactly noon, and then marched toward the military police stationed in Sangbu-ri. When they arrived at the main gate of the military police building, the Japanese military police and more than 10 Korean military police assistants standing by suddenly opened fire indiscriminately at the crowd. More than 20 people were killed on the spot, more than 70 were injured, and more than 500 were arrested. Seven more demonstrations were held in Seongcheon-gun. The total number of demonstrators was more than 51,000. Among them, 36 were killed, 60 were injured, and 535 were arrested, suggesting the fierceness of the demonstration for national independence in this region.

    • March First Independence Movement in Oksang-myeon, Euiju
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      March First Independence Movement in Oksang-myeon, Euiju

      The first demonstration for national independence in Oksang-myeon took place on March 7. Park Gyeong-deuk, a resident of Samha-dong in Oksang-myeon, prepared the demonstration together with Kim Si-hang. On March 7, about 50 people held a demonstration in Samha-dong, Samsang-dong and Dangmok-dong of Oksang-myeon. The two figures masterminded another demonstration for national independence on March 31 in Samha-dong. Park Gyeong-deuk and Kim Si-hang also planned the demonstration that took place on April 2. That day, the number of demonstrators who left Samha-dong, Samsang-dong and Dangmok-dong and gathered in front of the office of Oksang-myeon reached 3,000. Park Gyeong-deuk and Kim Si-hang told the officials of the Oksang-myeon office including Choi Yeong-gyun, “We have declared national independence. Close the Myeon office today and transfer the building, equipment, property, etc. to the Autonomy Group to be organized.” The demonstrators seized the Oksang-myeon office and confiscated equipment, 7 document files, and 193.15 won in cash. After that, the Autonomy Group handled the affairs of Oksang-myeon for more than 10 days.

    • March First Independence Movement in Yeongwon
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      March First Independence Movement in Yeongwon

      The demonstration for national independence in Yeongwon-gun was started by 35 Chondoism believers who distributed the Declaration of Independence and paraded while hurrahing for national independence and holding Taegeukgi on March 7 under the direction of Choi Jong-sik. Nonetheless, all the 35 demonstrators were arrested with the ruthless suppression by the Japanese military police. Afterward, on March 9 at around 1 pm, more than 200 Chondoism believers gathered outside Yeongwon-eup and held a demonstration for national independence. They marched to the military police substation and demanded the release of the people arrested in the previous demonstration. The Japanese military police opened fire to stop the demonstration. Amid the confusion, those detained in the annex building broke the door, joined the demonstrators, and continued the demonstration parade. The people watching the demonstration on the roadside joined, too. The 10 infantry soldiers dispatched from Deokcheon-eup then opened fire indiscriminately, killing 15 people on the spot, injuring 34, and arresting more than 70.

    • March First Independence Movement in Euiju
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      March First Independence Movement in Euiju

      As a gateway to China, Euiju in Pyeonganbuk-do Province used to be an industrial and commercial town. In 1914, Euiju became a satellite town with the establishment of a wider administrative unit of Sineuijubu. When the March First Independence Movement was born in 1919, Rev. Yu Yeo-dae, one of the national representatives, was in charge of the East Church. While participating in a meeting of elders of the Presbyterian churches in Pyeonganbuk-do Province in mid-February, Rev. Yu Yeo-dae heard from Lee Seung-hoon who returned from Seoul about the plan for the independence movement and promised to join. Lee Seung-hoon was one of the national representatives leading the Christian world as an elder of the Presbyterian Church. On Feb. 27, Rev. Yu Yeo-dae heard the news of the impending declaration of independence from Jo Hyeong-gyun, the senior leader of Jeongju Church. On Feb. 28, Rev. Yu Yeo-dae prepared the independence movement at Yangsil School together with more than 20 people who expressed their will to participate in the independence movement including Rev. Kim Byeong-nyong who came from Andong Prefecture of China, Jeong Myeong-chae, Kim Du-chil, and Ahn Seok-eung. The worthy uprising would be held on March 1 at 2:30 pm, and the venue would be the square of the West Church, which was also the schoolyard of Yangsil School. The teachers of Yangsil School – Jeong Myeong-chae, Kim Du-chil, and Hong Seok-min – made about 300 copies of "The February 8th Declaration of Independence" until dawn in case the Declaration of Independence did not arrive in time. They also made Taegeukgi. They then informed the Christians in the region and teachers, students, and parents of students of Yangsil School of the time and place of the demonstration. Ahn Seok-eung, who had studied in Japan, was tasked with distributing the Declaration of Independence to government offices including the Pyeonganbuk-do Provincial Office and police department on March 1 at 2 pm.
      About 700~800 people gathered at the square of the West Church on March 1 at 2:30 pm. The masterminds of the demonstration distributed the Declaration of Independence and Taegeukgi to the demonstrators. They sang a hymn first, and then Rev. Yu Yeo-dae and other leaders went up the platform and declared the opening of the meeting. Rev. Kim Byeong-nyong offered a prayer, and Rev. Yu Yeo-dae delivered a speech declaring the national independence. Then, just when Rev. Yu Yeo-dae was about to read "The February 8th Declaration of Independence," the 200 copies of the Declaration of Independence sent from Seoul arrived. Instead of "The February 8th Declaration of Independence" that he had prepared, Rev. Yu Yeo-dae read the Declaration of Independence aloud. Afterward, they sang a song for national independence. Kim I-gwan and Hwang Dae-gwan delivered additional speeches. Afterward, the demonstrators hurrahed for national independence and began parading in town following a Taegeukgi and the students of Yangsil School. The Euiju Archdiocese of Chondoism led by Choi Seok-ryeon joined the demonstration for national independence by distributing the Declaration of Independence. The Japanese military police blocked and dispersed the demonstrators and arrested more than 10 masterminds of the demonstration including Rev. Yu Yeo-dae. The March First demonstration for national independence in Euiju was personally prepared by Rev. Yu Yeo-dae who was one of the national representatives. The demonstration was prepared by Christians and students of a Christian school. Chondoism believers banded together at the site of the demonstration distributing the Declaration of Independence. It is interesting to note that "The February 8th Declaration of Independence" had been prepared, but the Declaration of Independence sent from Seoul arrived just in time at the site of demonstration in a dramatic fashion.

    • March First Independence Movement in Jeongju
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      March First Independence Movement in Jeongju

      Kim Jin-pal was one of the Chondoism leaders in Jeongju-gun. While participating in a "100-day Prayer" meeting in Seoul, he received instructions regarding the independence movement. Upon returning to Jeongju, he met with Choi Seok-il, chief of Chondoism Jeongju Parish, and Seo In-hwa, Baek Jung-bin, Lee Geun-bae, and Park Yun-gil as well as Kim Gyeong-ham, chief of Chondoism Gwaksan Parish, at the house of Park Hyeong-seok in Seoju-dong. They agreed to hold a demonstration for national independence on March 31, the market day of Jeongju. On his way home after visiting Seo-myeon and Haesan-myeon, however, Kim Seok-bo, who was responsible for the mobilization of the people of Jeongju county, was checked by a military police assistant and was found with one copy of the Declaration of Independence hidden in his cotton-padded trousers. For that reason, the demonstration for national independence on March 31 was held in a warlike atmosphere. As many as 25,000 people participated in the demonstration for national independence. The military police at the demonstration site severed the head and two arms of Choi Seok-il who was encouraging the crowd at the front. Then, Kim Si-won who was marching behind Choi Seok-il picked up the Taegeukgi dropped by Choi Seok-il and led the crowd again. Then the military police assistants stabbed the demonstrators with iron hooks and opened fire indiscriminately. As a result, 92 people were killed on the spot, and more than 70 were arrested. The demonstration for national independence in Jeongju is recorded as a massacre with the most number of casualties in the March First Independence Movement nationwide. A separate demonstration for national independence was held in Yong-dong where Osan School is located. In retaliation for the demonstration for national independence on March 31 and against Lee Seung-hoon who participated in the declaration of independence in Seoul as one of the national representatives, the Japanese army burned the buildings of Chondoism Jeongju Parish, Osan School and its dormitory, Yong-dong Church, etc. on April 2. A Christian church in Jeongju-eup was also set on fire on April 10. Among the 55,000 people who participated in the 18 instances of worthy uprising in Jeongju-gun, 120 were killed, 525 were injured, and 567 were arrested. Thus, Jeongju was one of the fiercest sites of the demonstration for national independence.

    • March First Independence Movement in Changseong
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      March First Independence Movement in Changseong

      Changseong-eup had maintained direct contact with Lee Seung-hoon even before the March First Independence Movement. When the plan for the demonstration for national independence was ripening in Seoul, Lee Seung-hoon dispatched Rev. Song Mun-jeong of Wolhwa-myeon Church in Euiju-gun to Changseong to involve the people in mountainous areas in the national independence movement. Kang Je-hee, an elder of Changseong-eup Church, received secret instructions from Lee Seung-hoon and met with Kang Jeong-sik, Jeong Bong-jae, etc. and planned for a worthy uprising. On April 1, they held a demonstration for national independence together with about 2,000 people mobilized from Changseong-eup and different Myeon regions. The Japanese soldiers dispatched to the demonstration site fired indiscriminately together with the military police. Park Chang-so and Kang Jeong-sik were killed on the spot, and four or five people were severely wounded by bullets. The demonstrators were dispersed. Kang Je-hee sought asylum in Manchuria on April 2 with the help of Lee Bong-geun and continued the independence movement. Meanwhile, about 1,000 people held a demonstration for national independence on April 1 in Daeyu-dong, Dongchang-myeon, with Chondoism believers leading a demonstration on April 4 and Christians spearheading a demonstration on April 5. In Haksong-ri of Cheongsan-myeon, Chondoism believers and Christians banded together to hold a demonstration for national independence on April 5. During the demonstration, 6 people were killed, and 25 were injured in the clash with Japanese military police. In Cheongryong-ri of Changsan-myeon, more than 70 Chondoism believers held a demonstration for national independence on April 6, during which 7 people were killed and 5 were injured by the Japanese military police.

    • March First Independence Movement in Pyeongyang
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      March First Independence Movement in Pyeongyang

      The March First demonstration for national independence in Pyeongyang was prepared by the Christian world and Chondoism believers. Though they had made separate preparations for the demonstration, they banded together on March 1. First, the leaders of the Presbyterian Church had closely monitored the news of the independence movement in Seoul and promptly made preparations in earnest upon hearing that the ceremony for the declaration of independence was to be held on March 1 at 2 pm. They sent a notification to each Presbyterian church to participate in a memorial service for Emperor Gojong on March 1 at 1 pm at the schoolyard of Sungdeok School next to Jangdaehyeon Church. The students of Sungdeok School and Sungdeok Girls’ School annexed to the Presbyterian Church made Taegeukgi. The Methodist Church prepared a demonstration for national independence under the direction of Rev. Shin Hong-sik who was one of the national representatives. The leaders of the Methodist Church decided to hold a ceremony for the declaration of national independence at Namsanhyeon Church at 1 pm. The students of Gwangseong School annexed to the Methodist Church made Taegeukgi. The Pyeongyang Archdiocese of Chondoism contacted the central headquarters of Chondoism in Seoul and prepared a demonstration for national independence. In late February, they convened a meeting of the chiefs of parishes under the Pyeongyang Archdiocese and waited for instructions. On Feb. 28, the Pyeongyang Archdiocese received a telegram from Kim Sang-yeol, chief of Chondoism Parish in Seoncheon, Pyeonganbuk-do, to send someone to Pyeongyang Station. Woo Gi-ju, head of the Pyeongyang Archdiocese, personally went to Pyeongyang Station and received the Declaration of Independence printed in Seoul. Woo Gi-ju distributed the Declaration of Independence to various regions through the Chondoism leaders who were present at the meeting of the chiefs of parishes. They then informed Chondoism believers of the news of the memorial service for Emperor Gojong and began to print the Declaration of Independence urgently. The Declaration of Independence was sent to the Presbyterian Church and the Methodist Church. They also made Teageukgi.
      Finally, the Presbyterian Church, Methodist Church, and Chondoism believers held the memorial service for Emperor Gojong separately on March 1 at 1 pm. The believers of the Presbyterian Church held a memorial service for Emperor Gojong at the schoolyard of Sungdeok School at 1 pm. Not only Christians but also the leaders of the region participated in the ceremony, with the number of participants exceeding 3,000. Missionary Samuel A. Moffett sat on a guest seat, and plainclothesmen watched the participants intently. The memorial service ended shortly after the expression of condolences by singing a hymn and offering a prayer. A large Taegeukgi was then raised on the platform, and Elder Do In-gwon jumped up to the platform and announced the opening of the ceremony for the declaration of national independence. Kwak Gwon-eung, a teacher of Sungdeok School, distributed Taegeukgi to the Christians present. The ceremony for the declaration of national independence was conducted by Rev. Kim Seon-du. Rev. Jeong Il-seon read the Declaration of Independence, and Rev. Kim Seon-du and Rev. Kang Gyu-chan delivered speeches. Afterward, Elder Yun Won-sam gave three cheers for national independence, with the people following suit. Kwak Gwon-eung conducted the singing of the national anthem. Though the superintendent of Pyeongyang Police Station personally urged the demonstrators to disperse, the believers of the Presbyterian Church went out of the school and advanced downtown.
      The Methodists gathered at Namsanhyeon Church at 1 pm and finished the memorial service for Emperor Gojong shortly, and then held a ceremony for the declaration of national independence. Rev. Kim Chan-hong presided over the meeting, and Rev. Ju Gi-won read the Declaration of Independence. Rev. Park Seok-hun delivered a speech. Kim Yeon-sil, a Methodist deacon, and Chae Aeyora, a teacher, distributed Taegeukgi to the participants. The Methodists present at the ceremony hurrahed for national independence and moved downtown. At the same time, Chondoism believers held a memorial service for Emperor Gojong and the ceremony for the declaration of national independence, and then marched while hurrahing for national independence.
      Though they left from three different places, the people soon banded together downtown. The Presbyterian demonstrators who left from the schoolyard of Sungdeok School joined the Chondoism demonstrators who went out after finishing a ceremony in a Chondoism temple. They were blocked by the police and military police in front of Pyeongyang Police Station. At this time, the Methodist demonstrators who left from Namsanhyeon Church joined, too. The three demonstration groups that left from three different places became one at around 3 pm in front of Pyeongyang Police Station. The demonstrators went to the new city, which was the residential area for the Japanese people, and marched in front of Pyeonganbuk-do Provincial Office and Pyeongyang Court, and then moved toward the square of Pyeongyang Station. They also passed by Pyeongyang District Office, Pyeongyang Middle School, and Pyeongyang Prison.
      Upon hearing the news of the joint demonstration for national independence by Christians and Chondoism believers, the towns and schools near Pyeongyang urgently organized demonstration groups and went downtown. In the evening, the number of demonstrators doubled, and they surrounded Pyeongyang Police Station. The police had firefighters spray water at the demonstrators, but the crowd did not disperse. At around 6 pm, the windows of the police station building were broken by the stones thrown by the demonstrators. The military police then tried to arrest the demonstrators by firing blanks. Enraged over the fire, the demonstrators gathered round the police, and the two sides clashed. Finally, the garrison soldiers came and dispersed the demonstrators. In the end, 112 people were arrested and 6 were injured. One policeman was wounded, too. Still, the students continued to march in town until late at night following bands and hurrahing for national independence. The shop owners closed their stores and did not open them until March 9.

    • March First Independence Movement in Jinnampo
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      March First Independence Movement in Jinnampo

      Jinnampo was a new port city located in Pyeongannam-do Province. The March First demonstration for national independence in Jinnampo was led by Hong Gi-hwang, principal of Samsung School annexed to the Methodist Church. In Pyeongyang, Hong Gi-hwang heard the news of the impending ceremony for the declaration of national independence in Seoul from Rev. Shin Hong-sik and returned to Jinnampo on Feb. 27. He discussed the matter with the teachers of Samsung School and evangelists and agreed to hold a ceremony for the declaration of national independence at the same time as Seoul on March 1 at 2 pm and began preparations for a demonstration for national independence. Hong Gi-hwang notified not only the Methodists but also Chondoism believers of the plan. Noh Yun-gil, a Methodist and a member of the Port Grain Brokerage Union, made contact with the dock workers. He also visited Rev. Kim Chan-heung of a Methodist church in Pyeongyang and received 100 copies of the Declaration of Independence from Yun Wonsam, a Presbyterian elder, through the good offices of Rev. Kim Chan-heung and returned to Jinnampo by taking the first train on March 1. Upon receiving the Declaration of Independence from Noh Yun-gil, Hong Gi-hwang rushed to make 500 pieces of Taegeukgi and asked Jo Du-sik, a teacher of Samsung School, to copy the Declaration of Independence. Jo Du-sik made an excerpt of the Declaration of Independence mainly with the first and last parts of the Declaration of Independence and produced 800 copies using the mimeograph of Samsung School together with Hong Gi-ju. Hong Gi-hwang instructed the leaders to distribute the Declaration of Independence on the street when the bell of Sinheung Church rang at 2 pm.
      On March 1 at 2 pm, more than 500 people including more than 100 students of Samsung School gathered at Sinheung Methodist Church. After finishing the memorial service for Emperor Gojong, Hong Gi-hwang read the Declaration of Independence loudly, and the people held a demonstration for national independence in town from around 3 pm following the Taegeukgi and a large flag that read "Hurrah for National Independence." When the demonstrators reached the front of Jinnampo Police Station and hurrahed for national independence, the police opened fire. Kim Gi-jun and his wife were killed on the spot. That day, the police asked for reinforcements of infantry soldiers from Pyeongyang to be prepared for all possible contingencies.
      The demonstration for national independence in Jinnampo on March 1 was led by the leaders of the Methodist Church who attempted to collaborate with Chondoism believers. Above all, the demonstration in Jinnampo is noteworthy as casualties occurred on the very day of March 1 due to the firing by the Japanese police.

    • March First Independence Movement in Seoncheon
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      March First Independence Movement in Seoncheon

      Seoncheon-gun in Pyeonganbuk-do Province served as a transportation hub, being positioned at a point where the Gyeongeui Line connecting Seoul and Sineuiju and the Pyeongeui Line connecting Pyeongyang and Sineuiju met. In Seoncheon-gun, Rev. Yang Jeon-baek, one of the national representatives, was the pastor in charge of the North Church. Rev. Yang Jeon-baek prepared the declaration of independence together with Hong Seong-ik, a Bible teacher of Sinseong School who suffered hardships together with him in the "105 People Incident." On Feb. 27, Hong Seong-ik made preparations in earnest together with Kim Ji-ung, a teacher of Sinseong School, and Rev. Kim Seok-chang of the South Church. Kim Ji-ung assumed the responsibility of contacting and organizing the students of Sinseong School. The next day, Feb. 28, Rev. Yang Jeon-baek left for Seoul to participate in the ceremony for the declaration of national independence by the national representatives on March 1. Kim Ji-ung gave "The February 8th Declaration of Independence," which he received from Yang Jeon-baek several days before, to the students and instructed them to make copies. Though he knew that a Declaration of Independence was being prepared for the demonstration for national independence on March 1, he made copies in case the Declaration of Independence did not arrive in time. Kim Ji-ung also asked the students to print an article in Maeil Sinbo Daily dated Jan. 28, which broke the news of the Paris Peace Conference, a translation of an article reported in an English newspaper being published in Beijing, and the song "Haengboga," which was a demonstration song. The students also made Taegeukgi. On the night of Feb. 28 while the people were busy preparing for the demonstration, Lee Gye-chang arrived in Seoncheon bringing about 100 copies of the Declaration of Independence. He received the Declaration of Independence in Seoul from Rev. Kim Chang-jun, a national representative, at the request of Park Hee-do, another national representative. Lee Gye-chang delivered the Declaration of Independence to Kim Ji-ung. On March 1, the teachers and students gathered to participate in the regular prayer meeting of Sinseong School, which was usually held at noon. Hong Seong-ik went up to the podium and attached a sheet of paper on the blackboard instead of conducting the service. He wrote "Today is the National Independence of Korea" on paper with blood and began a speech. After hearing the speech, 140~150 of the students went out of the school gate under the direction of Jeong Sang-in, a teacher. They marched in town following a large Taegeukgi and a flag reading "Joseon Independence Group." They also distributed the Declaration of Independence and Taegeukgi to the residents. More than 60 students of Boseong Girls’ School who had already been informed of the news of the demonstration for national independence joined the demonstrators. The students passed by the South Church and the North Church and entered downtown.
      When they arrived at Cheonnam-dong Market, the number of demonstrators increased to more than 2,000 with ordinary people joining. The ceremony for the declaration of national independence was held at the center of the market. Kim Ji-ung read the Declaration of Independence loudly, and the crowd received Taegeukgi as well as the Declaration of Independence, a newspaper report, and the translated newspaper articles and leaflets of demonstration songs. After finishing the ceremony for the declaration of national independence, the demonstrators followed Jeong Sang-in and paraded with a large Taegeukgi in the lead. The demonstrators held protests in front of the county office and the police station and marched through town. As mentioned before, Kim Sang-yeol, chief of Chondoism Parish in Seoncheon, gave the Declaration of Independence to the people of Pyeongyang on Feb. 28 on his way back to Seocheon. On March 1, the leaders of Chondoism Parish in Seoncheon distributed the Declaration of Independence brought by Kim Sang-yeol to the people on the street.
      The Japanese army was promptly dispatched to Seoncheon. The 25 soldiers and officers of the 77th Infantry Regiment came and suppressed the demonstrators together with the mounted police. Kang Shin-hyeok, who was bearing the large Taegeukgi, was killed on the spot when the Japanese soldiers opened fire. The demonstrators were completely dispersed at around 6 pm. That night, the police searched the dormitory and the housing quarters of the teaching staff of Sinseong School and the rectory of the church to arrest the masterminds of the demonstration. More than 170 people were arrested after the demonstration. Most of them were teachers and students of Sinseong School. The March First demonstration for national independence in Seoncheon was prepared mainly by the teachers and students of Sinseong School and through the collaboration of students and religious circles. Solidarity with Chondoism was realized at the site of demonstration. Both the Declaration of Independence sent from Seoul and "The February 8th Declaration of Independence" were distributed at the same time at the site of the demonstration for national independence. As in Jinnampo, there were casualties on the very day of March 1 due to the firing by Japanese soldiers.

    • March First Independence Movement in Anju
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      March First Independence Movement in Anju

      Located in a plain area in Pyeongannam-do Province, Anju was a commercial town and a transportation hub. The Pyeongeui Line connecting Pyeongyang and Sineuiju and the Gaecheon Line connecting Sinanju and Gaecheon passed through Anju. In Anju-gun, Rev. Kim Chan-seong, who built the Presbyterian East Church, led the demonstration for national independence. He had heard the news of the impending ceremony for the declaration of national independence in Seoul. On Feb. 28, upon receiving the Declaration of Independence, he decided to hold a demonstration the next day and urgently summoned more than 10 young leaders of the church in their 20s including Kim Hwa-sik who was his son. The young leaders reproduced the Declaration of Independence at the house of Park Eui-song and notified the believers of the church of the news of the ceremony for the declaration of national independence to be held the next day. In the morning of March 1, they continued to prepare the ceremony for the declaration of national independence at the house of Kim Hwa-sik. They made more copies of the Declaration of Independence using a mimeograph.
      On March 1 at 5 pm, the believers of the East Church gathered outside the west gate of Anju-myeon. The young leaders delivered speeches and distributed the Declaration of Independence. They then marched to town together to deliver speeches and distribute the Declaration of Independence. The military police arrested the leaders and confiscated the Declaration of Independence. Dozens of demonstrators stayed up all through the night in front of the gate of the military police station in support of the masterminds who were in jail.

  • Gando
    • March First Independence Movement in Gando
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      March First Independence Movement in Gando

      With the strong wave of the March First Independence Movement in Korea, demonstrations for national independence took place in the Gando region, too. The demonstrations for national independence in Gando began on March 12, 1919 with the demonstrations in Samwonbo, Yuha Prefecture and Geumdu, Tonghwa Prefecture in the West Gando region, held in commemoration of the ceremony for the Declaration of Independence in Seoul. The first demonstration for national independence in North Ganda took place on March 13 in Yongjeong, which is the center of the region and where many Koreans resided. At noon that day, about 10,000 Koreans gathered in Seojeon Daeya on the north of Yongjeong at the signal of the bell sounded from a Catholic church. Almost all the Koreans living in Yongjeong as well as those living within 40km from Yongjeong participated in the gathering and filled the wide yard during the congratulatory ceremony for national independence. The congratulatory ceremony for national independence began with the reading of the Declaration of Independence by Kim Yeong-hak. After finishing the congratulatory ceremony, the crowd held a demonstration for national independence with a large flag reading “Independence of Korea” in the lead. Having discovered the plan in advance, however, the Japanese government negotiated with the Chinese government and had the Chinese army commanded by Maeng Bu-deok suppress the demonstration for national independence. Faced with the strong resistance of the demonstrators, Maeng Bu-deok took the flag of the “Independence of Korea” in front and gave the order to fire. A total of 18 people were killed on the spot, and more than 30 were injured by the indiscriminate firing, and the demonstrators were dispersed. Nonetheless, many great and small demonstrations for national independence continued in the region of North Gando until mid-April including the one in Yongjeong on March 17, Hunchun on March 20, Baekchogu on March 26, and Gojipji on March 31.

THE ACADEMY OF KOREAN STUDIES
Encyclopedia of Korean Culture

Waving the Taegeukgi (National Flag of Korea) and Singing Aegukga (the National Anthem)

In an attempt to analyze the factors that accelerated the street demonstrations, the Governor-General of Korea pointed to the distribution of demagogic printed materials. In fact, materials encouraging Koreans’ to take part in the movement to regain national independence were printed with mimeographs at schools and churches, and served as catalysts for spreading the March 1st Independence Movement. Copies of the Joseon dongnip sinmun (The Independent), an underground newspaper, were secretly distributed in Seoul on March 1, 1919, which in turn led to the publication of many underground newspapers across the country. Such publications informed Koreans about how the street demonstrations were to be carried out. People were also encouraged to take part in the street demonstrations by leaflets bearing slogans, posters, manifestoes informing them of planned demonstrations, guidelines for future struggles, round-robin stories, written warnings and threats calling for public officials to resign and the Japanese to leave the country.
During the March 1919 Independence Movement, demonstrators carried the Taegeukgi, Korea’s national flag, and sang Aegukga, the national anthem. Though they carried a variety of flags, the Taegeukgi was the most noticeable among them. Students had made the Taegeukgi, along with other preparations for the street demonstrations. Women workers, barmaids, farmers, and young people also took part in the production of the national flags. Some of them dared to hoist the Taegeukgi at local government offices, where the Japanese flag was supposed to be hoisted. There were also villages that dared to hoist the Taegeukgi. Street demonstrators sang Aegukga, which had been prohibited since Japan’s annexation of Korea in 1910, aloud. More and more Koreans came to sing the national anthem through the March 1919 Independence Movement.
In this way, the March 1st Independence Movement was creating new forms of protest that Koreans had never before experienced in their struggle for independence. Newspapers and printed materials spread the news about the street demonstrations, and multitudes of Koreans reaffirmed their determination to wage the struggle for independence while waving the Taegeukgi and singing Aegukga at the street demonstrations.
The March 1st Independence Movement was carried out peacefully, and without recourse to violence, by Koreans who were longing for democracy. First of all, the demonstrators asserted that peoples all over the world should be allowed to live freely and equally without being ruled by foreign imperialists. The February 8th Independence Declaration announced by Korean students in Japan pointed out that Japan’s colonial rule of Korea was the rule of the sword, treating Koreans unjustly and unequally, that Koreans were granted neither political rights nor freedom of assembly, freedom of the press, freedom of religion or freedom to do business, and that the Japanese administrative and judicial authorities and police were infringing Koreans’ rights as individuals at will. The Declaration of Independence of Korea announced by Koreans in Nikolsk and Vladivostok, Russia on March 17, 1919 singled out Japan as a public enemy of democracy. It also announced that all democrats are “our” friends in “our” struggle to regain independence. The Korean people’s struggle against the Japanese imperialists was a fight for freedom, justice, and peace. Koreans were totally delighted at the news that, on April 11, 1919, their provisional government in Shanghai had announced the Korean Provisional Charter of the Constitution, which included a clause stating that “The Republic of Korea shall be a democratic republic.”
The March 1st Independence Movement sent a message to the whole world that there could be no peace either in Asia or in the world without Korea’s independence. At that time, the idea that Korea’s independence was a step toward the realization of peace was widespread. In the Declaration of Independence announced on March 20, 1919, the Korean National Assembly asserted, “Peace in Asia depends on Korea’s independence.” The Declaration of Independence of 1919 also announced that long-lasting peace in Asia could never be guaranteed if twenty million Koreans were allowed to be oppressed by force.
Koreans put the spirit of non-violence into practice throughout the March 1st Independence Movement. People from religious circles, who set up the plan for the movement, said, “All our acts should respect the principle of public order so that our claim may be viewed as fair and just” in one of their three pledges associated with the movement. The street demonstrations showed the spirit of the street demonstrations. During the two-month-long March 1st Independence Movement, which was a struggle against Korea’s Japanese rulers, not a single Japanese civilian was killed.
The spirit of democracy, peace, and non-violence of the March 1st Independence Movement was maintained by other independence movements that sprang up during the period of colonial rule. Students, young people, workers, farmers, and women, all of whom played a leading role in the movement, upheld that spirit in carrying out their own popular movements.
체포압송되는 3‧1운동 주도학생들 한국 광복군들의 서명이 적힌 태극기 (From left) Korean student leaders of the March 1st Independence Movement being arrested and taken to the Japanese police; A Taegeukgi bearing the autographs of the Korean Independence Army @Source: The Independence Hall of Korea

Harsh Repression Following the March 1st Independence Movement

The March 1st Independence Movement, which began on March 1 and lasted for more than two months, spread from urban areas to rural areas, and even outside the country. According to the Hanguk dongnip undong jihyeolsa (The Bloody History of the Korean Independence Movement) written by Park Eun-sik, more than two million Koreans, accounting for around ten percent of the entire population, took part in the movement. Among these, about 7,500 people were killed and 16,000 were injured, and more than 46,000 people were arrested by the Japanese police, while 49 church buildings and 715 private houses were burned by the Japanese authorities in reprisal. Between March and December of 1919, 19,054 of the people who had been arrested were indicted and 7,819 were convicted in court hearings.
A number of repressive laws were enacted by the Japanese colonists in Korea up until 1919. For instance, in 1907 the Japanese Residency-General’s Office in Korea enacted the Security Act to impose restrictions on the freedom of assembly and association and to prohibit the posting of printed materials and pictures in public, and even to restrict people’s behavior. The Act on Paper Used for Newspapers and the Publication Act were enacted in 1919 and 1909, respectively, to suppress the Daehan maeil sinbo (The Korea Daily News) and Hwangseong sinmun (Capital Gazette) among others and to confiscate books associated with Korean patriotism. In 1912, the Governor-General of Korea enacted the then version of today’s Minor Offenses Act in a bid to crack down on even the daily life of the Korean people.
In 1912, the Governor-General of Korea promulgated the Ordinance on Penal Matters in Korea, which was designed to assist the application of the Criminal Act and other relevant acts of Japan in Korea. Following the March 1st Independence Movement, the colonists hurriedly enacted the Decree on the Punishment of Political Crimes (Governor-General’s Regulation No. 7) in order to punish Koreans who had taken part in the street demonstrations. Those convicted for violation of the Security Act after taking part in independence movement accounted for 71.7% of all those convicted, while those convicted for sedition under the Criminal Act accounted for 21.8%; and those convicted for violation of the Publication Act and the Governor-General’s Regulation No. 7 accounted for 3.5% and 2.1% respectively. Most of those who planned the March 1st Independence Movement as national leaders were sentenced to three years in prison for violations of the Security Act, the Publication Act, and the sedition clause of the Criminal Act. Meanwhile, those who used violence in the street demonstrations, such as setting fire to local government buildings or police boxes or injuring or killing (military) police officers received harsher sentences: Forty-three people were given sentences of 5-10 years in prison, twenty-one were sentenced to more than 10 years in prison, and five were given life sentences.
3‧1운동의 탄압 사진 3‧1운동의 탄압 사진2 3‧1운동의 탄압 사진3 (From left) Japanese police arresting student demonstrators; Victims of the March 1st Independence Movement; A ruined house in Jeam-ri @Source: The Independence Hall of Korea

Democracy, Peace, and Non-violence

The March 1st Independence Movement was carried out peacefully, and without recourse to violence, by Koreans who were longing for democracy. First of all, the demonstrators asserted that peoples all over the world should be allowed to live freely and equally without being ruled by foreign imperialists. The February 8th Independence Declaration announced by Korean students in Japan pointed out that Japan’s colonial rule of Korea was the rule of the sword, treating Koreans unjustly and unequally, that Koreans were granted neither political rights nor freedom of assembly, freedom of the press, freedom of religion or freedom to do business, and that the Japanese administrative and judicial authorities and police were infringing Koreans’ rights as individuals at will. The Declaration of Independence of Korea announced by Koreans in Nikolsk and Vladivostok, Russia on March 17, 1919 singled out Japan as a public enemy of democracy. It also announced that all democrats are “our” friends in “our” struggle to regain independence. The Korean people’s struggle against the Japanese imperialists was a fight for freedom, justice, and peace. Koreans were totally delighted at the news that, on April 11, 1919, their provisional government in Shanghai had announced the Korean Provisional Charter of the Constitution, which included a clause stating that “The Republic of Korea shall be a democratic republic.”
The March 1st Independence Movement sent a message to the whole world that there could be no peace either in Asia or in the world without Korea’s independence. At that time, the idea that Korea’s independence was a step toward the realization of peace was widespread. In the Declaration of Independence announced on March 20, 1919, the Korean National Assembly asserted, “Peace in Asia depends on Korea’s independence.” The Declaration of Independence of 1919 also announced that long-lasting peace in Asia could never be guaranteed if twenty million Koreans were allowed to be oppressed by force.
Koreans put the spirit of non-violence into practice throughout the March 1st Independence Movement. People from religious circles, who set up the plan for the movement, said, “All our acts should respect the principle of public order so that our claim may be viewed as fair and just” in one of their three pledges associated with the movement. The street demonstrations showed the spirit of the street demonstrations. During the two-month-long March 1st Independence Movement, which was a struggle against Korea’s Japanese rulers, not a single Japanese civilian was killed.
The spirit of democracy, peace, and non-violence of the March 1st Independence Movement was maintained by other independence movements that sprang up during the period of colonial rule. Students, young people, workers, farmers, and women, all of whom played a leading role in the movement, upheld that spirit in carrying out their own popular movements.
2‧8독립선언주도인물들 제암리사건을 조사하는 미국인선교사 스코필드 박사와 부인 앨리스 (From left) Leaders of the February 8th Independence Declaration in Tokyo; an American missionary investigating the Jeam-ri Incident; Dr. Frank William Schofield, a Canadian missionary, and his wife Alice @Source: The Independence Hall of Korea